Info about Shuttle Flight STS- 35
SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION STS-35
PUBLIC AFFAIRS CONTACTS
Mark Hess/Ed Campion
Office of Space Flight
NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
Paula Cleggett-Haleim/Michael Braukus
Office of Space Science and Applications
NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, Calif.
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
Johnson Space Center, Houston
Lisa Malone/Pat Phillips
Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
Jean Drummond Clough
Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va.
David Drachlis/Jerry Berg
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.
GENERAL RELEASE 1
SUMMARY OF MAJOR ACTIVITIES 2
STS-35 CARGO CONFIGURATION 3
STS-35 QUICK LOOK FACTS 4
GENERAL INFORMATION 5
TRAJECTORY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS 6
SPACE SHUTTLE ABORT MODES 6
PAYLOAD AND VEHICLE WEIGHTS 7
STS-35 PRELAUNCH PROCESSING 7
ASTRO-1 MISSION 8
ASTRO-1 OBSERVATORY 12
Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope 12
Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment 15
Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope 17
BROAD BAND X-RAY TELESCOPE 19
ASTRO CARRIER SYSTEMS 22
ASTRO OPERATIONS 25
ASTRO GROUND CONTROL 27
ASTRO-1 HISTORY 29
SHUTTLE AMATEUR RADIO EXPERIMENT (SAREX) 30
STS-35 COLUMBIA SAREX FREQUENCIES 32
"SPACE CLASSROOM, ASSIGNMENT: THE STARS" 32
ORBITER EXPERIMENTS PROGRAM 33
STS-35 CREW BIOGRAPHIES 36
STS-35 MISSION MANAGEMENT 38
UPCOMING SPACE SHUTTLE FLIGHTS 40
PREVIOUS SPACE SHUTTLE FLIGHTS 41
COLUMBIA TO FLY ASTRONOMY MISSION
Highlighting mission STS-35, the 38th flight of the Space Shuttle
and 10th mission of orbiter Columbia, will be around-the-clock
observations by the seven-member crew using the ultraviolet astronomy
observatory (Astro) and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). Both
instruments are located in Columbia's payload bay and will be operated
during 12-hour shifts by the crew.
Above Earth's atmospheric interference, Astro-1 will observe and
measure ultraviolet radiation from celestial objects. Astro-1 is the first in
a series of missions that will make precise measurements of objects such
as planets, stars and galaxies in relatively small fields of view.
Liftoff of the 10th flight of Columbia is scheduled for the week of
Dec. 2, 1990 from launch pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
Columbia will be placed into a 218 statute (190 nautical) mile circular
orbit, inclined 28.5 degrees to the equator. Nominal mission duration is
expected to be 9 days 21 hours 57 minutes. Landing will take place at
Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.
Astro-1 uses a Spacelab pallet system with an instrument pointing
system and a cruciform structure for bearing the three ultraviolet
instruments mounted in parallel configuration. The three instruments
are the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT), the Wisconsin Ultraviolet
Photo-polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE) and the Ultraviolet Imaging
Telescope (UIT). The star tracker, which supports the instrument
pointing system, also is mounted on the cruciform.
HUT will study faint astronomical objects such as quasars, active
galactic nuclei and supernova remnants in the little-explored ultraviolet
range below 1200 Angstroms. It consists of a mirror that focuses on an
aperture of a prime focus spectrograph. Observations of the outer planets
of the solar system will be made to investigate aurorae and gain insight
into the interaction of each planet's magnetosphere with the solar wind.
WUPPE will measure the polarization of ultraviolet light from
celestial objects such as hot stars, galactic nuclei and quasars. It uses
two-mirror telescope optics in conjunction with a spectropolarimeter.
This instrument will measure the polarization by splitting a beam of light
into two mutually-perpendicular planes of polarization, passing the beams
through a spectrometer and focusing the beams on two separate array
UIT consists of a telescope and two image intensifiers with 70 mm
film transports (1000 frames each). It will acquire images of faint objects
in broad ultraviolet bands in the wavelength range of 1200 to 3200
Angstroms. This experiment also will investigate the present stellar
content and history of star formation in galaxies, the nature of spiral
structure and non-thermal sources in galaxies.
Also in the payload bay is the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope which
has two co-aligned imaging telescopes with cryogenically cooled lithium-
drifted silicon detectors at each focus. Accurate pointing of the
instrument is achieved by a two-axis pointing system (TAPS).
BBXRT will study various targets, including active galaxies, clusters
of galaxies, supernova remnants and stars. BBXRT will directly measure
the amount of energy in electron volts of each X-ray detected.
Astro observations will begin about 23 hours after Columbia has
completed its maneuvering burn to circularize its orbit at 190 nautical
miles. BBXRT will be activated approximately 13 hours after orbital
insertion. Astro will be deactivated 12 hours before deorbit and BBXRT
deactivation will be 4 hours before the deorbit burn.
Columbia's middeck will carry the Shuttle Amateur Radio
Experiment (SAREX) to communicate with amateur radio stations within
line-of-sight of the orbiter in voice mode or data mode. This experiment
has previously flown on STS-9 and STS-51F. Also on this mission,
Columbia will function as the subject for ground sensor operations as part
of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) calibration test.
Commander of the seven-member crew is Vance Brand. Pilot is
Guy Gardner. STS-35 is Brand's fourth trip to space. He previously flew
on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission in 1975. He also commanded
Shuttle missions STS-5 in November 1982 and STS-41B in February
1984. Gardner previously piloted STS-27 in December 1988.
Mission Specialists are Mike Lounge, Jeffrey Hoffman and Robert
Parker. Lounge previously flew on STS-51I in August 1985 and STS-26
in September 1988. Hoffman flew as a Mission Specialist on STS-51D in
April 1985. Parker's previous spaceflight experience was STS-9 in
Payload Specialists Ronald Parise and Samuel Durrance round out
the STS-35 crew. Both are making their first space flights.
SUMMARY OF MAJOR ACTIVITIES
Landing at Edwards AFB
STS-35 QUICK LOOK
Launch Date: December 2, 1990
Launch Window: 1:24 a.m. - 3:54 a.m. EST
Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
Launch Complex 39-B
Orbiter: Columbia (OV-102)
Altitude: 218 statute miles (190 nm)
Duration: 9 days, 21 hours, 57 minutes
Landing Date/Time: Dec. 11, 1990, 8:21 p.m. PST
Primary Landing Site: Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.
Abort Landing Sites: Return to Launch Site -- Kennedy Space
Trans-Atlantic Abort -- Banjul, The Gambia
Abort Once Around -- Edwards AFB, Calif.
Crew Vance D. Brand - Commander - Red/Blue Team
Guy S. Gardner - Pilot - Red Team
Jeffrey A. Hoffman - Mission Specialist 1/EV1 - Blue Team
John M. "Mike" Lounge - Mission Specialist 2/EV2 - Blue Team
Robert A.R. Parker - Mission Specialist 3 - Red Team
Samuel T. Durrance - Payload Specialist 1 - Blue Team
Ronald A. Parise - Payload Specialist 2 - Red Team
Red Team shift is approximately 10:30 p.m. -- 10:30 a.m. EST
Blue Team shift is approximately 10:30 a.m. -- 10:30 p.m.
Cargo Bay Payloads: Ultraviolet Astronomy Telescope (Astro)
Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT)
Middeck Payloads: Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS)
Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)
NASA Select Television Transmission
NASA Select television is available on Satcom F-2R, Transponder 13,
C-band located at 72 degrees west longitude, frequency 3960.0 MHz,
vertical polarization, audio monaural 6.8 MHz.
The schedule for tv transmissions from the orbiter and for the
change-of-shift briefings from Johnson Space Center, Houston, will be
available during the mission at Kennedy Space Center, Fla.; Marshall
Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.; Johnson Space Center; Goddard
Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. and NASA Headquarters,
Washington, D.C. The schedule will be updated daily to reflect changes
dictated by mission operations.
TV schedules also may be obtained by calling COMSTOR, 713/483-
5817. COMSTOR is a computer data base service requiring the use of a
telephone modem. Voice updates of the TV schedule may be obtained by
dialing 202/755-1788. This service is updated daily at noon EDT.
Status reports on countdown and mission progress, on-orbit activities
and landing operations will be produced by the appropriate NASA news
An STS-35 mission press briefing schedule will be issued prior to
launch. During the mission, flight control personnel will be on 8-hour
shifts. Change-of-shift briefings by the off-going flight director will occur
at approximately 8-hour intervals.
TRAJECTORY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
EVENT MET VELOCITY MACH ALTITUDE
(d:h:m:s) (fps) (ft)
Begin Roll Maneuver 00/00:00:09 162 .14 613
End Roll Maneuver 00/00:00:16 340 .30 2,505
SSME Throttle Down to 70% 00/00:00:26 608 .54 6,759
Max. Dyn. Pressure (Max Q) 00/00:00:54 1,229 1.17 28,976
SSME Throttle Up to 104% 00/00:01:03 1,473 1.46 39,394
SRB Staging 00/00:02:05 4,203 3.87 150,267
Negative Return 00/00:03:58 6,940 7.58 309,526
Main Engine Cutoff (MECO) 00/00:08:31 24,439 22.99 360,922
Zero Thrust 00/00:08:37 24,556i 22.73 363,937
ET Separation 00/00:08:49
OMS 2 Burn 00/00:40:22
Apogee, Perigee at MECO: 185 x 33
Apogee, Perigee post-OMS 2: 190 x 190
SPACE SHUTTLE ABORT MODES
Space Shuttle launch abort philosophy aims toward safe and intact
recovery of the flight crew, orbiter and its payload.
Abort modes include:
* Abort-To-Orbit (ATO) -- Partial loss of main engine thrust late
enough to permit reaching a minimal 105-nautical mile orbit with orbital
maneuvering system engines.
* Abort-Once-Around (AOA) -- Earlier main engine shutdown with the
capability to allow one orbit around before landing at Edwards Air Force
Base, Calif.; White Sands Space Harbor (Northrup Strip), N.M.; or the
Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center, Fla..
* Trans-Atlantic Abort Landing (TAL) -- Loss of two main engines
midway through powered flight would force a landing at Banjul, The
Gambia; Ben Guerir, Morocco; or Moron, Spain.
* Return-To-Launch-Site (RTLS) -- Early shutdown of one or more
engines and without enough energy to reach Banjul would result in a
pitch around and thrust back toward KSC until within gliding distance of
STS-35 contingency landing sites are Edwards AFB, White Sands,
Kennedy Space Center, Banjul and Ben Guerir, Moron.
PAYLOAD AND VEHICLE WEIGHTS
Vehicle/Payload Weight (lbs)
Orbiter Columbia empty 158,905
Ultraviolet Astronomy Telescope (Astro) 17,276
(IPS, igloo and 2 pallets)
Astro Support Equipment 404
Broad Band X-Ray Telescope ((BBXRT) 8,650
(including TAPS and support equipment)
Detailed Test Objectives (DTO) 274
Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) 61
Total vehicle at SRB ignition 4,523,199
Orbiter and cargo at main engine cutoff 267,513
Orbiter landing weight 225,886
STS-35 PRELAUNCH PROCESSING
Columbia's first launch attempt on May 29 was scrubbed because of
higher than allowable concentrations of hydrogen near the 17-inch
disconnect and in the aft compartment. Since that time, there have been
several launch attempts and two tanking tests.
After the first tanking test on June 6, officials decided to replace the
17-inch disconnect assemblies on both the orbiter and its external tank.
Columbia was rolled back to the Vehicle Assembly Building June 11,
demated from the external tank and transferred to the Orbiter
Processing Facility. A new disconnect from the shuttle Endeavour was
installed on Columbia and the orbiter and tank were remated.
Columbia was rolled out to Pad 39-A on Aug. 9 for launch.
The countdown began and launch was postponed on Aug. 30 to allow
the replacement of an electronic box for the Broad Band X-Ray
Telescope. Launch was scrubbed on Sept. 5 because of higher than
allowable concentrations of hydrogen in the aft compartment.
Another attempted launch occurred on Sept. 17, but again hydrogen
was detected in the aft compartment.
A board was appointed to find the cause of the leak. At the board's
direction, several main propulsion system seals were replaced, many leak
tests using gaseous helium were performed and various joints were
retorqued. In addition, the team completed a thorough analysis of data
collected from the tanking tests and reviewed all work performed on the
orbiter's propulsion system since Columbia's last flight.
The STS-35 vehicle was moved from Pad 39-A to 39-B on Oct. 8,
following the successful launch of Discovery on Mission STS-41. The
next day, Columbia was transferred back to the Vehicle Assembly
Building because adverse weather prevented productive work in the aft
compartment. On Oct. 14, the vehicle was rolled out to Pad 39-B, and
specially outfitted for the successful tank ing test conducted Oct. 30.
The successful tanking test paved the way for routine launch
preparations leading up to Columbia's planned liftoff.
# # # #
THE ASTRO-1 MISSION
Since the earliest days of astronomy, humankind has used the light
from the stars to test their understanding of the universe. Now, an array
of telescopes to be flown on the first Spacelab mission since 1985, will
extend scientists' vision beyond the visible light to view some of the most
energetic events in the universe.
Astro-1 is the first Spacelab mission devoted to a single scientific
discipline -- astrophysics. The observatory will operate from within the
cargo bay of Space Shuttle Columbia on the STS-35 mission. Together,
four telescopes will dissect ultraviolet light and X-rays from stars and
galaxies, revealing the secrets of processes that emitted the radiation
from thousands to even billions of years ago. Wherever it points, Astro
promises to reveal an array of information.
The Astro-1 Spacelab project is managed by NASA's Marshall Space
Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.
Seeing the Universe
Astronomy from the ground always has been hampered by the
Earth's atmosphere. Even visible light is distorted and blurred by the
motion of air masse, and visible light is just a small part of the radiation
that virtually all objects in the sky emit. Other forms of radiation -- like
cooler, low-energy infrared light and hotter, high-energy ultraviolet light
and X-rays -- are largely absorbed by the atmosphere and never reach the
Seeing celestial objects in visible light alone is like looking at a
painting in only one color. To appreciate fully the meaning of the
painting, viewers must see it in all of its colors.
The Astro-1 telescopes were constructed to add some of these
"colors" to scientists' view of stars and galaxies. The telescopes' perch
above the veil of Earth's atmosphere in Columbia's cargo bay will allow
scientists to view radiation that is invisible on the ground.
Three of Astro-1's telescopes will operate in the ultraviolet portion
of the spectrum and one in the X-ray portion. One will take photographs;
two will analyze the chemical composition, density and temperature of
objects with a spectrograph; and the other will study the relative
brightness and polarization (the study of light wavelength orientation) of
celestial objects. Some sources will be among the faintest known, as faint
as the glow of sunlight reflected back from interplanetary dust.
By studying ultraviolet and X-rays, astronomers can see emissions
from extremely hot gases, intense magnetic fields and other high-energy
phenomena that are much fainter in visible and infrared light or in radio
waves -- and which are crucial to a deeper understanding of the universe.
Several space telescopes -- notably the Orbiting Astronomical
Observatory-3 (Copernicus) launched in 1972, the International
Ultraviolet Explorer launched in 1978 and the second High Energy
Astronomy Observatory launched in 1979 -- opened the window in these
exciting parts of the spectrum. The combined observations by Astro, the
Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observatories will provide
astronomers with a more comprehensive view of the cosmos than ever
What Astro-1 Will "See"
The universe viewed by Astro will look strikingly different from the
familiar night sky. Most stars will fade from view, too cool to emit
significant ultraviolet radiation or X-rays. Yet, very young massive stars,
very old stars, glowing nebulae, active galaxies and quasars will gleam
Astro will make observations in this solar system. Astro will examine
the chemistry of planetary atmospheres and the interactions of their
magnetic fields. The Astro observatory will study comets as they interact
with light and particles from the sun to produce bright, streaming tails.
Astro will peer far beyond this solar system to study many types of
stars. The sun is only one of an estimated several hundred billion stars in
the galaxy. Stars like the sun are the most common type: fiery spheres of
gas, about 1 million times larger in volume than Earth, with nuclear
furnaces that reach temperatures of millions of degrees.
Today, current evidence indicates that the sun is a stable, middle-
aged star, but some 5 billion years hence it will swell and swallow the
inner planets including Earth. As a red giant, it may eject a shell of dust
and gas, a planetary nebula. As the sun fades, it will collapse to an object
no bigger than Earth, a dense, hot ember, a white dwarf. Astronomers
predict that most stars may end their lives as white dwarfs, so it is
important to study these stellar remains. White dwarfs emit most of their
radiation in the ultraviolet, and one of Astro-1's main goals is to locate
and examine white dwarfs in detail.
Astro-1 instruments will locate hot, massive stars of all ages so that
astronomers can study all phases of stellar evolution. Stars with 10 to 100
times more mass than the sun burn hydrogen rapidly until their cores
collapse and they explode as supernovas, among the most powerful events
in the universe. These stars are initially are very hot and emit mostly
Astro will view the recent explosion, Supernova 1987A, which
spewed stellar debris into space. Supernovas forge new elements, most
of which are swept away in expanding shells of gas and debris heated by
the shock waves from the blast. Astro-1 will look for supernova remnants
which remain visible for thousands of years after a stellar death. Astro-1's
ultraviolet and X-ray telescopes will provide information on element
abundances, the physical conditions in the expanding gas and the
structure of the interstellar medium.
Neutron Stars, Pulsars, Black Holes
After a supernova explosion, the stellar core sometimes collapses
into a neutron star, the densest and tiniest of known stars, with mass
comparable to the sun compacted into an area the size of a large city.
Matter can become so dense that a sugar cube of neutron star material
would weigh 100 million tons.
Sometimes neutron stars are pulsars that emit beacons of radiation
and appear to blink on and off as many as hundreds of times per second
because they spin so rapidly. Scientists have theorized that some stars
may collapse so far that they become black holes, objects so dense and
gravitationally strong that neither matter nor light escape. Astro will look
for the ultraviolet radiation and X-rays thought to be produced when hot,
whirling matter is drawn into a black hole.
Few stars live in isolation; most are found in pairs or groups. Some
stellar companions orbit each other and often pass so close that mass is
transferred from one star to the other, producing large amounts of
ultraviolet and X-ray radiation which Astro-1's four telescopes are
designed to study. These binary star systems may consist of various
combinations of objects including white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black
Stars may congregate in star clusters with anywhere from a few to
millions of members. Often, there are so many stars in the core of a
cluster, it is impossible to distinguish the visible light from individual
stars. Because they shine brightly in the ultraviolet, Astro-1 can isolate
the hot stars within clusters.
The clusters are excellent laboratories for studying stellar evolution
because the stars residing there formed from the same material at nearly
the same time. However, within a single cluster, stars of different masses
evolve at different rates.
Stellar evolution can be studied by looking at clusters of different
ages. Each cluster of a given age provides a snapshot of what is
happening as a function of stellar mass. By examining young clusters (less
than 1 million years old) and comparing them to old clusters (1 billion
years old), scientists can piece together what happens over a long time.
The space between stars is filled with dust and gas, some of which
will condense to become future stars and planets. This interstellar
medium is composed chiefly of hydrogen with traces of heavier elements
and has a typical density of one atom per thimbleful of space. Astro-1 will
be able to measure the properties of this material more accurately by
studying how it affects the light from distant stars.
For the most part, the interstellar medium is relatively cool, but it
includes pockets of hot matter as well. Dense clouds of dust that
surround stars and scatter and reflect light are called reflection nebulae.
These are often illuminated by hot, young stars in stellar nurseries
hidden within the clouds. Ultraviolet observations will reveal the features
of stars hidden by the dust as well as the size and composition of the dust
Beyond the Milky Way are at least a hundred billion more galaxies,
many with hundreds of billions of stars. They contain most of the visible
matter in the universe and are often found in clusters of galaxies that
have tens to thousands of members. X-ray and ultraviolet emission will
allow scientists to study the hottest, most active regions of these galaxies
as well as the intergalactic medium, the hot gas between the galaxies in a
Galaxies have a variety of shapes and sizes: gigantic spirals like the
Milky Way, egg-shaped elliptical and irregular shapes with no preferred
form. Astro will survey the different types of galaxies and study their
evolution. The nearby galaxies will appear as they were millions of years
ago, and Astro will see the most distant ones as they were billions of years
ago. By comparing these galaxies, scientists can trace the history of the
Some galaxies are in the process of violent change. Such active
galaxies have central regions (nuclei) that emit huge amounts of energy;
their ultraviolet and X-ray emission may help us identify their source of
power. Astro-1's ultraviolet and X-ray telescopes will detect quasars, very
distant compact objects that radiate more energy than 100 normal
Quasars may be the nuclei of ancient active galaxies. Strong X-ray
and ultraviolet radiation arising in the central cores of these powerful
objects may help scientists discover what these objects really are.
This overview is the known universe today, but many of these ideas
are only predictions based on theory and a few observations. Scientists
still lack the definitive observations needed to confirm or refute many of
these theories. Scientists do not know the exact size of the universe or
its age. Scientists have never definitely seen a black hole, and they
continue to question the nature of quasars.
To understand these mysteries, scientists need to see the universe
in all its splendor. Astro is part of NASA's strategy to study the universe
across the electromagnetic spectrum, in all wavelengths.
THE ASTRO-1 OBSERVATORY
The Astro-1 observatory is a compliment of four telescopes.
Though each instrument is uniquely designed to address specific
questions in ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, when used in concert, the
capability of each is enhanced. The synergistic use of Astro-1's
instruments for joint observations serves to make Astro-1 an
exceptionally powerful facility. The Astro-1 observatory has three
o Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) uses a spectrograph to examine
faint astronomical objects such as quasars, active galactic nuclei and
normal galaxies in the far ultraviolet.
o Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) will take wide-field-of-view
photographs of objects such as hot stars and galaxies in broad ultraviolet
o Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE) will
study the ultraviolet polarization of hot stars, galactic nuclei and quasars.
These instruments working together will make 200 to 300
observations during the STS-35 mission. The Astro ultraviolet telescopes
are mounted on a common pointing system in the cargo bay of the Space
Shuttle. The grouped telescopes will be pointed in the same direction at
the same time, so simultaneous photographs, spectra and polarization
studies will be available for each object observed. The telescopes will be
operated by Columbia's crew.
A fourth Astro instrument, the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope
(BBXRT), will view high-energy objects such as active galaxies, quasars
and supernovas. This telescope is mounted on a separate pointing system
secured by a support structure in the cargo bay.
For joint observations, BBXRT can be aligned with the ultraviolet
telescopes to see the same objects, but it also can be pointed
independently to view other X-ray sources. BBXRT will be operated
remotely by ground controllers. Since the ultraviolet telescopes and the
X-ray telescope are mounted on different support structures, they can be
reflown together or separately.
The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope
The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope is the first major telescope
capable of studying far ultraviolet (FUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
radiation from a wide variety of objects in space. HUT's observations will
provide new information on the evolution of galaxies and quasars, the
physical properties of extremely hot stars and the characteristics of
accretion disks (hot, swirling matter transferred from one star to
another) around white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes.
HUT will make the first observations of a wide variety of
astronomical objects in the far ultraviolet region below 1,200 Angstroms
(A) and will pioneer the detailed study of stars in the extreme ultraviolet
band. Ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths shorter than 912 A is absorbed
by hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe. HUT will allow
astronomers, in some instances along unobserved lines of sight, to see
beyond this cutoff, called the Lyman limit, because the radiation from the
most distant and rapidly receding objects, such as very bright quasars, is
shifted toward longer wavelengths.
HUT was designed and built by the Center for Astrophysical
Sciences and the Applied Physics Laboratory of The Johns Hopkins
University in Baltimore, Md. Its 36-inch mirror is coated with the rare
element iridium, a member of the platinum family, capable of reflecting
far and extreme ultraviolet light. The mirror, located at the aft end of the
telescope, focuses incoming light from a celestial source back to a
spectrograph mounted behind the telescope.
A grating within the spectrograph separates the light, like a
rainbow, into its component wavelengths. The strengths of those
wavelengths tell scientists how much of certain elements are present.
The ratio of the spectral lines reveal a source's temperature and density.
The shape of the spectrum shows the physical processes occurring in a
The spectrograph is equipped with a variety of light-admitting slits
or apertures. The science team will use different apertures to
accomplish different goals in their observation. The longest slit has a
field of view of 2 arc minutes, about 1/15th the apparent diameter of the
moon. HUT is fitted with an electronic detector system. Its data
recordings are processed by an onboard computer system and relayed to
the ground for later analysis.
Johns Hopkins scientists conceived HUT to take ultraviolet
astronomy beyond the brief studies previously conducted with rocket-
borne telescopes. A typical rocket flight might gather 300 seconds of
data on a single object. HUT will collect more than 300,000 seconds of
data on nearly 200 objects during the Astro-1 mission, ranging from
objects in the solar system to quasars billions of light-years distant.
HUT Vital Statistics
Sponsoring Institution: The Johns Hopkins University,
Principal Investigator: Dr. Arthur F. Davidsen
Telescope Optics: 36 in. aperture, f/2 focal ratio, iridium-
coated paraboloid mirror
Instrument: Prime Focus Rowland Circle
Spectrograph with microchannel plate
intensifier and electronic diode array
Field of View
of Guide TV: 10 arc minutes
Spectral Resolution: 3.0 A
Wavelength Range: 850 A to 1,850 A (First Order)
425 A to 925 A (Second Order)
Weight: 1,736 lb
Size: 44 inches in diameter
12.4 ft. in length
Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment
Any star, except for our sun, is so distant that it appears as only a
point of light and surface details cannot be seen. If the light from objects
is polarized, it can tell scientists something about the source's geometry,
the physical conditions at the source and the reflecting properties of tiny
particles in the interstellar medium along the radiation's path.
The Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE),
developed by the Space Astronomy Lab at the University of Wisconsin-
Madison, is designed to measure polarization and intensity of ultraviolet
radiation from celestial objects. WUPPE is a 20-inch telescope with a
5.5-arc-minute field of view.
WUPPE is fitted with a spectropolarimeter, an instrument that
records both the spectrum and the polarization of the ultraviolet light
gathered by the telescope. Light will pass through sophisticated filters,
akin to Polaroid sunglasses, before reaching the detector. Measurements
then will be transmitted electronically to the ground.
Photometry is the measurement of the intensity (brightness) of the
light, while polarization is the measurement of the orientation (direction)
of the oscillating light wave. Usually waves of light move randomly -- up,
down, back, forward and diagonally. When light is polarized, all the waves
oscillate in a single plane. Light that is scattered, like sunlight reflecting
off water, is often polarized. Astro-1 astronomers expect to learn about
ultraviolet light that is scattered by dust strewn among stars and galaxies.
They also can learn about the geometry of stars and other objects by
studying their polarization. To date, virtually no observations of
polarization of astronomical sources in the ultraviolet have been carried
out. WUPPE measures the polarization by splitting a beam of radiation
into two perpendicular planes of polarization, passing the beams through
a spectrometer and focusing the beams on two separate array detectors.
In the ultraviolet spectrum, both photometry and polarization are
extremely difficult measurements to achieve with the high degree of
precision required for astronomical studies. To develop an instrument
that could make these delicate measurements required an unusually
innovative and advanced technical effort. Thus, the WUPPE investigation
is a pioneering foray with a new technique.
The targets of WUPPE investigations are primarily in the Milky Way
galaxy and beyond, for which comparative data exist in other wavelengths.
Like the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope, WUPPE also makes
spectroscopic observations of hot stars, galactic nuclei and quasars.
Operating at ultraviolet wavelengths that are mostly longer than those
observed by HUT (but with some useful overlap), WUPPE provides
chemical composition and physical information on celestial targets that
that give off a significant amount of radiation in the 1,400 to 3,200 A
WUPPE Vital Statistics
Sponsoring Institution: University of Wisconsin, Madison
Principal Investigator: Dr. Arthur D. Code
Telescope Optics: Cassegrain (two-mirror) system, f/10
Instrument: Spectropolarimeter with dual
electronic diode array detectors
Primary Mirror Size: 20 in. diameter
279 sq.* in. area
Field of View: 3.3 x 4.4 arc minutes
Spectral Resolution: 6 Angstroms
Wavelength Range: 1,400 to 3,200 Angstroms
Magnitude Limit: 16
Weight: 981 lb
Size: 28 inches in diameter
12.4 ft. in length
* This and subsequent changes were made to avoid confusion
since the computer will not create exponents for cm2 or the
circle over the A for Angstrom.
The Ultraviolet ImagingTelescope
In the 20 years that astronomical observations have been made
from space, no high-resolution ultraviolet photographs of objects other
than the sun have been made. Nonetheless, the brief glimpses of the
ultraviolet sky have led to important discoveries in spiral galaxies,
globular clusters, white dwarf stars and other areas.
Deep, wide-field imaging is a primary means by which
fundamentally new phenomena or important examples of known classes
of astrophysical objects will be recognized in the ultraviolet. The
Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), developed at NASA's Goddard Space
Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., is the key instrument for these
UIT is a powerful combination of telescope, image intensifier and
camera. It is a 15.2-inch Ritchey Chretien telescope with two selectable
cameras mounted behind the primary mirror. Each camera has a six-
position filter wheel, a two-stage magnetically focused image tube and a
70-mm film transport, fiber optically coupled to each image tube. One
camera is designed to operate in the 1200 - 1700 Angstrom region and
the other in the 1250-3200 Angstrom region.
Unlike data from the other Astro instruments, which will be
electronically transmitted to the ground, UIT images will be recorded
directly onto a very sensitive astronomical film for later development
after Columbia lands. UIT has enough film to make 2,000 exposures. A
series of 11 different filters allows specific regions of the ultraviolet
spectrum to be isolated for energy-distribution studies. After
development, each image frame will be electronically digitized to form
2,048 x 2,048 picture elements, or pixels, then analyzed further with
UIT has a 15-inch diameter mirror with a 40-arc-minute field of
view -- about 25 percent wider than the apparent diameter of the full
moon. UIT has the largest field of view of any
sensitive UV imaging instrument planned for flight in the 1990s. It will
photograph nearby galaxies, large clusters of stars and distant clusters of
A 30-minute exposure (the length of one orbital night) will record a
blue star of 25th magnitude, a star about 100 million times fainter than
the faintest star visible to the naked eye on a dark, clear night. Since
UIT makes longer exposures than previous instruments, fainter objects
will be visible in the images.
The instrument favors the detection of hot objects which emit most
of their energy in the ultraviolet. Common examples span the
evolutionary history of stars -- massive stars and stars in the final stages of
stellar evolution (white dwarfs). Images of numerous relatively cool stars
that do not radiate much in the ultraviolet are suppressed, and UV
sources stand out clearly.
The UIT's field of view is wide enough to encompass entire
galaxies, star clusters and distant clusters of galaxies. This deep survey
mode will reveal many new, exciting objects to be studied further by
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Although the Hubble Space Telescope
will have a much higher magnification and record much fainter stars, the
UIT will photograph much larger regions all at once. In addition, the
UIT will suffer much less interference from visible light, since it is
provided with "solar blind" detectors. For certain classes of targets, such
as diffuse, ultraviolet-emitting or ultraviolet-scattering nebulae, UIT may
be a more sensitive imager.
A wide selection of astronomical objects will be studied in this first
deep survey of cosmic phenomena in the ultraviolet. The UIT is
expected to target hot stars in globular clusters to help explain how stars
evolve. Another experiment may help astronomers learn whether
properties and distribution of interstellar dust are the same in all
galaxies. High-priority objects are Supernova 1987A and vicinity, star
clusters, planetary nebulae and supernova remnants, spiral and "normal"
galaxies, the interstellar medium of other galaxies and clusters of
UIT Vital Statistics
Sponsoring Institution: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
(GSFC), Greenbelt, Md.
Principal Investigator: Theodore P. Stecher (NASA GSFC)
Telescope Optics: Ritchey-Chretien (variation of
Cassegrain two-mirror system with
correction over wide field of view)
Aperture: 15 in.
Focal Ratio: f/9
Field of View: 40 arc minutes
Angular Resolution: 2 arc seconds
Wavelength Range: 1,200 A to 3,200 A
Magnitude Limit: 25
Filters: 2 filter wheels, 6 filters each
Detectors: Two image intensifiers with 70-mm
film, 1,000 frames each; IIaO
Exposure Time: Up to 30 minutes
Weight: 1,043 lb
Size: 32 inches in diameter
12.4 ft. in length
THE BROAD BAND X-RAY TELESCOPE
The Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) will provide astronomers
with the first high-quality spectra of many of the X-ray sources discovered
with the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2, better known as the
Einstein Observatory, launched in the late 1970s. BBXRT, developed at
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., uses mirrors and
advanced solid-state detectors as spectrometers to measure the energy of
individual X-ray photons. These energies produce a spectrum that
reveals the chemistry, structure and dynamics of a source.
BBXRT is actually two 8-inch telescopes each with a 17 arc-minute
field of view (more than half the angular width of the moon). The two
identical telescopes are used to focus X-rays onto solid-state
spectrometers which measure photon energy in electron volts in the
"soft" X-ray region, from 380 to 12,000 eV. The use of two telescopes
doubles the number of photons that are detected and also provides
redundancy in case of a failure.
X-ray telescopes are difficult to construct because X-ray photons are
so energetic that they penetrate mirrors and are absorbed. A mirror
surface reflects X-rays only if it is very smooth and the photons strike it
at a very shallow angle. Because such small grazing angles are needed,
the reflectors must be very long to intercept many of the incident X-rays.
Since even shallower angles are required to detect higher-energy X-rays,
telescopes effective at high energies need very large reflecting surfaces.
Traditionally, X-ray telescopes have used massive, finely polished
reflectors that were expensive to construct and did not efficiently use the
available aperture. The mirror technology developed for BBXRT consists
of very thin pieces of gold-coated aluminum foil that require no polishing
and can be nested very closely together to reflect a large fraction of the
X-rays entering the telescope.
Because its reflecting surfaces can be made so easily, BBXRT can
afford to have mirrors using the very shallow grazing angles necessary to
reflect high-energy photons. In fact, BBXRT is one of the first telescopes
to observe astronomical targets that emit X-rays above approximately
4,000 electron volts.
The telescope will provide information on the chemistry,
temperature and structure of some of the most unusual and interesting
objects in the universe. BBXRT can see fainter and more energetic
objects than any yet studied. It will look for signs of heavy elements such
as iron, oxygen, silicon and calcium. These elements usually are formed
in exploding stars and during mysterious events occurring at the core of
galaxies and other exotic objects.
BBXRT will be used to study a variety of sources, but a major goal is
to increase our understanding of active galactic nuclei and quasars. Many
astronomers believe that the two are very similar objects that contain an
extremely luminous source at the nucleus of an otherwise relatively
normal galaxy. The central source in quasars is so luminous that the host
galaxy is difficult to detect. X-rays are expected to be emitted near the
central engine of these objects, and astronomers will examine X-ray
spectra and their variations to understand the phenomena at the heart of
Investigators are interested in clusters of galaxies, congregations of
tens or thousands of galaxies grouped together within a few million light-
years of each other. When viewed in visible light, emissions from
individual galaxies are dominant, but X-rays are emitted primarily from
hot gas between the galaxies.
In fact, theories and observations indicate that there should be
about as much matter in the hot gas as in the galaxies, but all this
material has not been seen yet. BBXRT observations will enable scientists
to calculate the total mass of a cluster and deduce the amount of "dark"
A star's death, a supernova, heats the region of the galaxy near the
explosion so that it glows in X-rays. Scientists believe that heavy
elements such as iron are manufactured and dispersed into the
interstellar medium by supernovas. The blast or shock wave may produce
energetic cosmic ray particles that travel on endless journeys throughout
the universe and instigate the formation of new stars. BBXRT detects
young supernova remnants (less than 10,000 years old) which are still
relatively hot. Elements will be identified, and the shock wave's
movement and structure will be examined.
BBXRT was not part of the originally selected ASTRO payload. It
was added to the mission after the appearance of Supernova 1987A in
February 1987, to obtain vital scientific information about the supernova.
In addition, data gathered by BBXRT on other objects will enhance
studies that would otherwise be limited to data gathered with the three
BBXRT Vital Statistics
Sponsoring Institution: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center,
Principal Investigator: Dr. Peter J. Serlemitsos
Telescope Optics: Two co-aligned X-ray telescopes
with cooled segmented lithium-
drifted silicon solid-state detectors in
the focal planes
Focal Length: 12.5 ft. each, detection area 0.16 in.
Focal Plane Scale: 0.9 arc minutes per mm
Field of View: 4.5 arc minutes (central element);
17 arc minutes (overall)
Energy Band: 0.3 to 12 keV
Effective Area: 765 cm2 at 1.5 keV, 300 cm2 at 7 keV
Energy Resolution: 0.09 keV at 1 keV, 0.15 keV at 6 keV
Weight: 1,500 lb (680.4 kg)
Size: 40 inches in diameter
166 inches in length
ASTRO CARRIER SYSTEMS
The Astro observatory is made up of three co-aligned ultraviolet
telescopes carried by Spacelab and one X-ray telescope mounted on the
Two-Axis Pointing System (TAPS) and a special structure.
Each telescope was independently designed, but all work together
as elements of a single observatory. The carriers provide stable platforms
and pointing systems that allow the ultraviolet and X-ray telescopes to
observe the same target. However, having two separate pointing systems
gives investigators the flexibility to point the ultraviolet telescopes at one
target while the X-ray telescope is aimed at another.
The three ultraviolet telescopes are supported by Spacelab
hardware. Spacelab is a set of modular components developed by the
European Space Agency and managed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight
Center, Hunstville, Ala. For each Spacelab payload, specific standardized
parts are combined to create a unique design. Elements are anchored
within the cargo bay, transforming it into a short-term laboratory in
Spacelab elements used to support the Astro observatory include
two pallets, a pressurized igloo to house subsystem equipment and the
Instrument Pointing System. The pressurized Spacelab laboratory
module will not be used for Astro. Rather, astronauts and payload
specialists will operate the payload from the aft flight deck of the orbiter
The ultraviolet telescopes and the Instrument Pointing System are
mounted on two Spacelab pallets -- large, uncovered, unpressurized
platforms designed to support scientific instruments that require direct
exposure to space.
Each individual pallet is 10 feet long and 13 feet wide. The basic
pallet structure is made up of five parallel U-shaped frames. Twenty-four
inner and 24 outer panels, made of aluminum alloy honeycomb, cover the
frame. The inner panels are equipped with threaded inserts so that
payload and subsystem equipment can be attached. Twenty-four standard
hard points, made of chromium-plated titanium casting, are provided for
payloads which exceed acceptable loading of the inner pallets.
Pallets are more than a platform for mounting instrumentation. With
an igloo attached, they also can cool equipment, provide electrical power
and furnish connections for commanding and acquiring data from
experiments. Cable ducts and cable support trays can be bolted to the
forward and aft frame of each pallet to support and route electrical cables
to and from the experiments and the subsystem equipment mounted on
the pallet. The ducts are made of aluminum alloy sheet metal. In
addition to basic utilities, some special accommodations are available for
For Astro-1, two pallets are connected together to form a single
rigid structure called a pallet train. Twelve joints are used to connect the
Normally Spacelab subsystem equipment is housed in the core
segment of the pressurized laboratory module. However, in "pallet only"
configurations such as Astro, the subsystems are located in a supply
module called the igloo. It provides a pressurized compartment in which
Spacelab subsystem equipment can be mounted in a dry-air environment
at normal Earth atmospheric pressure, as required by their design. The
subsystems provide such services as cooling, electrical power and
connections for commanding and acquiring data from the instruments.
The igloo is attached vertically to the forward end frame of the first
pallet. Its outer dimensions are approximately 7.9 feet in height and 3.6
feet in diameter. The igloo is a closed cylindrical shell made of aluminum
alloy and covered with multi-layer insulation. A removable cover allows
full access to the interior.
The igloo consists of two parts. The primary structure -- an
exterior cannister -- is a cylindrical, locally stiffened shell made of forged
aluminum alloy rings and closed at one end. The other end has a
mounting flange for the cover. A seal is inserted when the two structures
are joined together mechanically to form a pressure-tight assembly.
There are external fittings on the cannister for fastening it to the
pallet, handling and transportation on the ground, and thermal control
insulation. Two feed-through plates accommodate utility lines and a
pressure relief valve. Facilities on the inside of the cannister are
provided for mounting subsystem equipment and the interior igloo
structure. The cover is also a cylindrical shell, made of welded aluminum
alloy and closed at one end. The igloo has about 77.7 cubic feet of
interior space for subsystems.
Subsystem equipment is mounted on an interior or secondary
structure which also acts as a guide for the removal or replacement of the
cover. The secondary structure is hinge-fastened to the primary
structure, allowing access to the bottom of the secondary structure and to
equipment mounted within the primary structure.
Instrument Pointing System
Telescopes such as those aboard Astro-1 must be pointed with very
high accuracy and stability at the objects which they are to view. The
Spacelab Instrument Pointing System provides precision pointing for a
wide range of payloads, including large single instruments or clusters of
instruments. The pointing mechanism can accommodate instruments
weighing up to 15,432 pounds and can point them to within 2 arc
seconds and hold them on target to within 1.2 arc seconds. The
combined weight of the ultraviolet telescopes and the structure which
holds them together is 9,131 pounds.
The Instrument Pointing System consists of a three-axis gimbal
system mounted on a gimbal support structure connected to the pallet at
one end and the aft end of the payload at the other, a payload clamping
system for support of the mounted experiment during launch and landing
and a control system based on the inertial reference of a three-axis gyro
package and operated by a gimbal-mounted microcomputer.
Three bearing-drive units on the gimbal system allow the payload to
be pointed on three axes: elevation (back and forth), cross-elevation
(side to side) and azimuth (roll), allowing it to point in a 22-degree circle
around a its straight-up position. The pointing system may be
maneuvered at a rate of up to one degree per second, which is five times
as fast as the Shuttle orbiter's maneuvering rate. The operating modes of
the different scientific investigations vary considerably. Some require
manual control capability, others slow scan mapping, still others high
angular rates and accelerations. Performance in all these modes requires
flexibility achieved with computer software.
The Instrument Pointing System is controlled through the Spacelab
subsystem computer and a data-display unit and keyboard. It can be
operated either automatically or by the Spacelab crew from the module
(when used) and also from the payload station in the orbiter aft flight
In addition to the drive units, Instrument Pointing System
structural hardware includes a payload/gimbal separation mechanism,
replaceable extension column, emergency jettisoning device, support
structure and rails and a thermal control system. The gimbal structure
itself is minimal, consisting only of a yoke and inner and outer gimbals to
which the payload is attached by the payload-mounted integration ring.
An optical sensor package is used for attitude correction and also
for configuring the instrument for solar, stellar or Earth viewing. The
Astro-1 mission marks the first time the Instrument Pointing System has
been used for stellar astronomy. Three star trackers locate guide stars.
The boresite tracker is in the middle, and two other trackers are angled
12 degrees from each side of the boresite. By keeping stars of known
locations centered in each tracker, a stable position can be maintained.
The three ultraviolet telescopes are mounted and precisely co-
aligned on a common structure, called the cruciform, that is attached to
the pointing system.
Image Motion Compensation System
An image motion compensation system was developed by the
Marshall Space Flight Center to provide additional pointing stability for
two of the ultraviolet instruments.
When the Shuttle thrusters fire to control orbiter attitude, there is
a noticeable disturbance of the pointing system. The telescopes are also
affected by crew motion in the orbiter. A gyro stabilizer senses the
motion of the cruciform which could disrupt UIT and WUPPE pointing
stability. It sends information to the image motion compensation
electronics system where pointing commands are computed and sent to
the telescopes' secondary mirrors which make automatic adjustments to
improve stability to less than 1 arc second.
The Astro-1's star tracker, designed by the NASA Jet Propulsion
Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., fixes on bright stars with well-known and
sends this information to the electronics system which corrects errors
caused by gyro drift and sends new commands to the telescopes' mirrors.
The mirrors automatically adjust to keep pointed at the target.
Broad Band X-ray Telescope and the Two-Axis Pointing System (TAPS)
Developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, these
pointing systems were designed to be flown together on multiple
missions. This payload will be anchored in a support structure placed
just behind the ultraviolet telescopes in the Shuttle payload bay. BBXRT
is attached directly to the TAPS inner gimbal frame.
The TAPS will move BBXRT in a forward/aft direction (pitch)
relative to the cargo bay or from side to side (roll) relative to the cargo
bay. A star tracker uses bright stars as a reference to position the TAPS
for an observation, and gyros keep the TAPS on a target. As the gyros
drift, the star tracker periodically recalculates and resets the TAPS
Operation of the Astro-1 telescopes will be a cooperative effort
between the science crew in orbit and their colleagues in a control
facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center and a support control center
at Goddard Space Flight Center. Though the crew and the instrument
science teams will be separated by many miles, they will interact with
one another to evaluate observations and solve problems in much the
same way as they would when working side by side.
On-Orbit Science Crew Activities
The Astro science crew will operate the ultraviolet telescopes and
Instrument Pointing System from the Shuttle orbiter's aft flight deck,
located to the rear of the cockpit. Windows overlooking the cargo bay
allow the payload specialist and mission specialist to keep an eye on the
instruments as they command them into precise position. The aft flight
deck is equipped with two Spacelab keyboard and display units, one for
controlling the pointing system and the other for operating the scientific
instruments. To aid in target identification, this work area also includes
two closed-circuit television monitors. With the monitors, crew
members will be able to see the star fields being viewed by HUT and
WUPPE and monitor the data being transmitted from the instruments.
The Astro-1 crew will work around the clock to allow the maximum
number of observations to be made during their mission. The STS-35
commander will have a flexible schedule, while two teams of crew
members will work in 12-hour shifts. Each team consists of the pilot or
flight mission specialist, a science mission specialist and a payload
specialist. The crew and the ground controllers will follow an observation
schedule detailed in a carefully planned timeline.
In a typical Astro-1 ultraviolet observation, the flight crew member
on duty maneuvers the Shuttle to point the cargo bay in the general
direction of the astronomical object to be observed. The mission
specialist commands the pointing system to aim the telescopes toward
the target. He also locks on to guide stars to help the pointing system
remain stable despite orbiter thruster firings. The payload specialist sets
up each instrument for the upcoming observation, identifies the celestial
target on the guide television and provides any necessary pointing
corrections for placing the object precisely in the telescope's field of
view. He then starts the instrument observation sequences and monitors
the data being recorded. Because the many observations planned create a
heavy workload, the payload and mission specialists work together to
perform these complicated operations and evaluate the quality of
observations. Each observation will take between 10 minutes to a little
over an hour.
The X-ray telescope requires little attention from the crew. A crew
member will turn on the BBXRT and the TAPS at the beginning of
operations and then turn them off when the operations conclude. The
telescope is controlled from the ground. After the telescope is activated,
researchers at Goddard can "talk" to the telescope via computer. Before
science operations begin, stored commands are loaded into the BBXRT
computer system. Then, when the astronauts position the Shuttle in the
general direction of the source, the TAPS automatically points the BBXRT
at the object. Since the Shuttle can be oriented in only one direction at a
time, X-ray observations must be coordinated carefully with ultraviolet
Astro-1 science operations will be directed from a new Spacelab
Mission Operations Control facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center.
BBXRT will be controlled by commands from a supporting payload
operations control facility at Goddard.
Spacelab Mission Operations Control
Beginning with the Astro-1 flight, all Spacelab science activities will
be controlled from Marshall's Spacelab Mission Operations Control
Center. It will replace the payload operations control center at the
Johnson Space Center from which previous Spacelab missions have been
operated. The Spacelab Mission Operations Control team is under the
overall direction of the mission manager.
The Spacelab Mission Operations Control team will support the
science crew in much the same way that Houston Mission Control
supports the flight crew. Teams of controllers and researchers at the
Marshall facility will direct all NASA science operations, send commands
directly to the spacecraft, receive and analyze data from experiments
aboard the vehicle, adjust mission schedules to take advantage of
unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and work with
crew members to resolve problems with their experiments.
An air/ground communications channel, in addition to the one used
by the Mission Control Center in Houston, will be dedicated to
communications between the Alabama control facility and the science
crew aboard the Space Shuttle. "Huntsville" will be the call sign from
space that astronauts will use to address their control team at the
The Spacelab Mission Operations Control facility is located on two
floors of Building 4663 at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Most of the
activity occurs in two work areas: the payload control area on the upper
floor from which the overall payload is monitored and controlled; and the
science operations area on the ground level, where scientists for the
individual telescopes monitor their instruments and direct observations.
The payload control area is the hub of payload operations.
Communication with the crew, on-orbit and ground computer systems
monitoring, science activities, and even television camera operations are
marshalled from work stations in the control room. Console operators in
the area are referred to as the payload operations control center (POCC)
cadre. The cadre is made up of three teams under the leadership of the
payload operations director.
The operations control team is responsible for real-time payload
control. They make sure that the pre-planned observation schedule is
being followed and send commands to the instruments and instructions
to the crew. Designated team members stay in voice contact with the the
on-board science crew via an air-to-ground communications loop.
The data management team ensures that the science data needed
from the payload is scheduled and received properly. The
responsibilities range from telling the on-board computer when to send
down the information it has been storing to scheduling TV transmissions
The payload activities planning team is in charge of replanning the
payload crew activity schedule when anything from unexpected science
opportunities to equipment problems requires a change. After a science
operations planning group makes rescheduling decisions for upcoming
shifts, the planning team determines the many adjustments that will
allow those changes to be accomplished.
The POCC cadre also includes the mission scientist, who leads the
science operations planning group and acts as a liaison between the cadre
and the science investigator teams; the alternate payload specialist, a
backup crew member who helps with air-to-ground communications and
assists the mission scientist; and a public affairs commentator.
The science operations area on the ground floor of the Spacelab
Mission Operations Control facility is staffed by teams of scientists and
engineers who developed the Astro-1 telescopes. The principal
investigators and support groups for the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,
the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope and the Wisconsin Photo-Polariameter
Experiment, along with the Broad Band X-ray telescope representatives
and a team monitoring the Marshall Space Flight Center's Image Motion
Compensation System share a large room in the science operations area.
The teams monitor the data flowing back from each instrument,
evaluate the instruments' performance, and assess and analyze the
science information revealed by the data. It is possible for the principal
investigator to talk directly with the crew member operating his
instrument if circumstances demand personal interaction.
Engineers on the science teams provide inputs on instrument
performance and if necessary recommend alternate methods to maintain
optimal performance. Scientists in each group evaluate the quality of data
given the scientific objectives. They also may do preliminary analysis of
their data, though a complete study may take months or even years.
Space astronomy is a fluid process because observations sometimes
produce unexpected results that demand more study than originally
planned during the mission. In addition, hardware contingencies may
demand that some activities be rescheduled. Any changes in the plan will
affect the observations of all four science teams. Therefore,
representatives from each team participate in the twice-daily, science-
operations planning group meetings. The science objectives and
viewpoints of the various teams are weighed; then the group agrees on
changes to the original activity plan.
BBXRT Payload Operations Control Center
A special team located at a remote payload operations control
center at the Goddard Space Flight Center will operate the Broad Band X-
Ray Telescope and its Two-Axis Pointing System. However, some
members of the BBXRT team will be stationed at the Marshall control
center to participate in science planning, and all commands issued to the
payload will be coordinated with the mission management team at
Marshall. The two payload operations control centers will be linked via
voice communication so that teams at both places can confer.
In February 1978, NASA issued an announcement of opportunity for
instruments that could travel aboard the Space Shuttle and utilize the
unique capabilities of Spacelab. Three telescopes -- HUT, UIT, and
WUPPE -- evolved as a payload manifested as OSS-3 through 7, and these
missions were assigned to the Goddard Space Flight Center. Because the
Instrument Pointing System and other Spacelab facilities were needed
for OSS-3, management was moved in 1982 to the Marshall Space Flight
Center. The payload was renamed Astro.
The Wide Field Camera was added to the payload in 1984 to make
detailed studies of Comet Halley, which was due to move through the
inner solar system in the spring of 1986.
The instruments were constructed, and the observatory had
completed Spacelab integration and testing by January 1986. Astro-1,
consisting of HUT, UIT, WUPPE and the Wide Field Camera, was ready
for orbiter installation when the Challenger accident occurred.
After the accident, the instruments were removed from Spacelab
and stored. Periodic checks were made during storage. However,
because of the the long interval, the decision was made to examine and
recertify all of the Astro instruments. As a part of this process, questions
arose in the summer of 1987 about the quality certifications of the bolts
used in the Astro-1 hardware. Support structures and instrument and
electronics attachments were inspected for possible faulty bolts. A total
of 298 bolts eventually were replaced.
HUT was kept at Kennedy Space Center, but its spectrograph was
returned to The Johns Hopkins University in October 1988. Although
protected from air and moisture by gaseous nitrogen, HUT's extremely
sensitive ultraviolet detector had degraded with time. The detector was
replaced but failed to pass an acceptance review, and a third detector was
installed in January 1989. An aging television camera was replaced in
WUPPE's precise instruments also required recalibration after their
storage period. Rather than ship the large, sensitive telescope back to
the University of Wisconsin where it was developed, astronomers there
built a portable vertical calibration facility and delivered it to the Kennedy
Space Center. Calibration was completed in April 1989.
WUPPE's power supplies for the spectrometer and for the zero order
detector were returned to the University of Wisconsin, where they were
modified to reduce output noise.
UIT also stayed at Kennedy, where the power supply for its image
intensifier was replaced in August 1989.
Because Comet Halley was no longer in position for detailed
observation, the Wide Field Camera was removed from the payload in the
spring of 1987. In March of 1988, BBXRT was added to the Astro-1
payload. Originally proposed in response to the 1978 announcement of
opportunity, BBXRT had been developed as one of three X-ray
instruments in a payload designated OSS-2. This was renamed the
Shuttle High-Energy Astrophysics Laboratory and proposed for flight in
1992. However, when Supernova 1987A occurred, BBXRT was
completed ahead of schedule and added to the Astro-1 payload. The
addition would allow study of the supernova and other objects in X-ray as
well as ultraviolet wavelengths.
The completed payload was tested at 6-month intervals. Level IV
testing, in which instruments and command software are operated apart
from Spacelab pallets, was completed in August 1989. The three
ultraviolet telescopes, the Instrument Pointing System and the igloo were
integrated with the Spacelab pallets for Level III testing, which
concluded in December 1989. The pallet-mounted ultraviolet telescopes
and pointing system, as well as the BBXRT and its Two-Axis Pointing
System, were moved to the Cargo Integration Test Equipment stand
where testing was completed at the end of February 1990.
Astro-1 was installed in Columbia's payload bay March 20, 1990.
Final integrated testing in the Orbiter Processing Facility between the
orbiter, payload, mission centers and satellite relays was completed
March 26-28. Payload pad activities included installation of Ultraviolet
Imaging Telescope (UIT) film, removal of telescope covers, final pallet
cleaning and BBXRT argon servicing.
SHUTTLE AMATEUR RADIO EXPERIMENT (SAREX)
Conducting shortwave radio transmissions between ground-based
amateur radio operators and a Shuttle-based amateur radio operator is
the basis for the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX).
SAREX communicates with amateur stations in line-of-sight of the
orbiter in one of four transmission modes: voice, slow scan television
(SSTV), data or (uplink only) fast scan television (FSTV).
The voice mode is operated in the attended mode while SSTV, data
or FSTV can be operated in either attended or unattended modes.
During the mission, SAREX will be operated by Payload Specialist
Ron Parise, a licensed operator (WA4SIR), during periods when he is not
scheduled for orbiter or other payload activities. At least four
transmissions will be made to test each transmission mode.
The primary pair of frequencies intended for use during the
mission is 145.55 MHz as the downlink from Columbia, with 144.95 MHz
as the uplink. A spacing of 600 KHz was deliberately chosen for this
primary pair to accommodate those whose split frequency capability is
limited to the customary repeater offset.
SAREX crew-tended operating times will be dictated by the time of
launch. As a secondary payload, SAREX will be operated by Parise during
his pre- and post-sleep activities each day. This means that wherever the
Shuttle is above Earth during those operating windows, amateur stations
can communicate with Columbia. Currently, those windows provide
coverage for Australia, Japan, South America and South Africa.
The continental United States has little or no coverage except
through a network of ground stations in other parts of the world in
conjunction with relay links back to the United States.
Another part of the SAREX is the "robot," providing an automated
operation which can proceed with little human intervention. The robot
will generally be activated during one of the crew-tended windows and
deactivated during the next one. This gives approximately 12 hours on
and 12 hours off for the robot, with the operational period chosen to
cover all of the U.S. passes.
SAREX has previously flown on missions STS-9 and STS-51F in
different configurations, including the following hardware: a low-power
hand-held FM transceiver, a spare battery set, an interface (I/F) module,
a headset assembly, an equipment assembly cabinet, a television camera
and monitor, a payload general support computer (PGSC) and an antenna
which will be mounted in a forward flight window with a fast scan
television (FSTV) module added to the assembly.
Antenna location does not affect communications and therefore
does not require a specific orbiter attitude for operations. The
equipment is stowed in one middeck locker.
SAREX is a joint effort of NASA and the American Radio Relay
League (ARRL)/Amateur Radio Satellite Corporation (AMSAT)
STS-35 COLUMBIA SAREX FREQUENCIES
Shuttle Transmit Accompanying Shuttle
Frequency Receive Frequencies
Group 1 145.55 MHz 144.95 MHz
Group 2 145.51 144.91
Group 3 145.59 144.99
Group 4 145.55 144.95
Note: The 145.55/144.95 combination is in both Groups 1 and 4
because alternate uplink frequencies from Group 1 would
be used over North and South America while those from
Group 4 would be used generally in other parts of the
"SPACE CLASSROOM, ASSIGNMENT: THE STARS"
"Space Classroom" is a new NASA educational effort designed to
involve students and teachers in the excitement of Space Shuttle science
missions. This new program joins more than 160 other educational
programs being conducted by NASA that use the agency's missions and
unique facilities to help educators prepare students to meet the nation's
growing need for a globally competitive work force of skilled scientists
The first Space Classroom project, called Assignment: The Stars,
will capitalize on the December 1990 flight of Astro-1, a Space Shuttle
astronomy mission. It is designed to spark the interest of middle school
students, encouraging them to pursue studies in mathematics, science
and technology. It will offer educators an alternative approach to
teaching their students about the electromagnetic spectrum -- a science
concept that is required instruction in many classrooms in the United
Space Classroom, Assignment: The Stars, involves several
educational elements: a lesson on the electromagnetic spectrum to be
taught live by the Astro-1 crew from the cabin of the Space Shuttle
Columbia during the flight; a supporting lesson to be taught from the
Astro-1 control center in Huntsville, Ala.; an Astro-1 teachers guide; an
Astro-1 slide presentation; a NASA educational satellite video conference
next fall; and post-flight video products suitable for classroom use.
The major component of Assignment: The Stars will be a lesson
taught by members of the Astro-1 science crew from the Space Shuttle as
they orbit the Earth during the mission. This 15-20 minute presentation
will focus on the electromagnetic spectrum and its relationship to the
high-energy astronomy mission.
The crew presentation will be followed by demonstrations and
discussions of the concepts introduced by the crew from a classroom in
the Astro-1 control center at Marshall Space Flight Center.
The lesson will conclude with an opportunity for some students
participating in the lesson from Marshall and students at Goddard Space
Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to ask questions of the crew in orbit.
Students at both centers will participate in additional workshops, tours
and laboratory sessions.
The lesson by the crew, the follow-up lesson from the Astro-1
control center and the question-answer session will be carried live on
NASA Select TV, Satcom satellite F2R, transponder 13, 3960 megahertz,
72 degrees West longitude. NASA Select will carry continuous
programming of all mission events as well. The lesson is tentatively
scheduled for the fifth day of the mission.
Beginning about 1 week before launch, Astro-1 Update, a recorded
bulletin on the status of the Astro-1 mission and Space Classroom, will be
available by dialing 205/544-8504.
In the fall of 1991, tapes of the lesson will available for a small fee
from NASA CORE, Lorain County Joint Vocational School, 15181 Route
58 South, Oberlin, Ohio, 44074 (phone: 216/ 774-1051).
ORBITER EXPERIMENTS PROGRAM
The advent of operations of the Space Shuttle orbiter provided an
opportunity for researchers to perform flight experiments on a full-scale,
lifting vehicle during atmospheric entry. In 1976, to take advantage of
this opportunity, NASA's Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and
Technology instituted the Orbiter Experiments (OEX) Program.
Since the program's inception, 13 experiments have been
developed for flight. Principal investigators for these experiments
represent NASA's Langley and Ames Research Centers, Johnson Space
Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.
Six OEX experiments will be flown on STS-35. Included among
this group will be five experiments which were intended to operate
together as a complementary set of entry research instrumentation. This
flight marks the first time since the September 1988 return-to-flight
that the Langley experiments will fly as a complementary set.
Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS)
The SEADS nosecap on the orbiter Columbia contains 14
penetration assemblies, each containing a small hole through which the
surface air pressure is sensed. Measurement of the pressure levels and
distribution allows post-flight determination of vehicle attitude and
atmospheric density during entry. SEADS, which has flown on three
previous flights of Columbia, operates in an altitude range of 300,000 feet
to landing. Paul M. Siemers III, Langley, is the principal investigator.
Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS)
The SUMS experiment complements SEADS by enabling
measurement of atmospheric density above 300,000 feet. SUMS samples
air through a small hole on the lower surface of the vehicle just aft of the
nosecap. It utilizes a mass spectrometer operating as a pressure sensing
device to measure atmospheric density in the high altitude, rarefied flow
regime where the pressure is too low for the use of ordinary pressure
sensors. The mass spectrometer incorporated in the SUMS experiment
was spare equipment originally developed for the Viking Mars Lander.
This is the first opportunity for SUMS to fly since STS-61C in January
1986. Robert C. Blanchard and Roy J. Duckett, Langley, are co-principal
Both SEADS and SUMS provide entry atmospheric environmental
(density) information. These data, when combined with vehicle motion
data, allow determination of in-flight aerodynamic performance
characteristics of the orbiter.
Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package (ACIP)
The ACIP instrumentation includes triaxial sets of linear
accelerometers, angular accelerometers and angular rate gyros, which
sense the orbiter's motions during flight. ACIP provides the vehicle
motion data which is used in conjunction with the SEADS environmental
information for determination of aerodynamic characteristics below about
300,000 feet altitude.
The ACIP has flown on all flights of Challenger and Columbia. David
B. Kanipe, Johnson Space Center, is the ACIP principal investigator.
High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP)
This instrument is a triaxial, orthogonal set of highly sensitive
accelerometers which sense vehicle motions during the high altitude
portion (above 300,000 feet) of entry. This instrument provides the
companion vehicle motion data to be used with the SUMS results. HiRAP
has been flown on 11 previous missions of the orbiters Columbia and
Challenger. Robert C. Blanchard, Langley, is the HiRAP principal
Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing (SILTS)
This experiment uses a scanning infrared radiometer located atop
the vertical tail to collect infrared images of the orbiter's leeside (upper)
surfaces during entry, for the purpose of measuring the temperature
distribution and thereby the aerodynamic heating environment. On two
previous missions, the experiment obtained images of the left wing. For
STS-35, the experiment has been reconfigured to obtain images of the
SILTS has flown on three Columbia flights. David A. Throckmorton
and E. Vincent Zoby, Langley, are co-principal investigators.
Aerothermal Instrumentation Package (AIP)
The AIP comprises some 125 measurements of aerodynamic
surface temperature and pressure at discrete locations on the upper
surface of the orbiter's left wing and fuselage, and vertical tail. These
sensors originally were part of the development flight instrumentation
system which flew aboard Columbia during its Orbital Flight Test missions
(STS-1 through 4). They have been reactivated through the use of an
AIP-unique data handling system. Among other applications, the AIP data
provide "ground-truth" information for the SILTS experiment.
The AIP has flown on two previous Columbia flights. David A.
Throckmorton, Langley, is principal investigator.
STS-35 CREW BIOGRAPHIES
Vance D. Brand, 58, will serve as Commander. Selected as an
astronaut in 1966, he considers Longmont, Colo., to be his
hometown. STS-35 will be Brand's fourth space flight.
Brand was Apollo Command Module Pilot on the Apollo-Soyuz Test
Project (ASTP) mission, launched on July 15, 1975. This flight resulted
in the historic meeting in space between American astronauts and Soviet
cosmonauts. The three-member U.S.crew spent 9 days in Earth orbit.
Brand's second flight was as Commander of STS-5 in November
1982, the first fully operational flight of the Shuttle Transportation
System and first mission with a four person crew. Brand next
commanded the 10th Space Shuttle mission aboard Challenger. STS-41B
with its crew of five was launched Feb. 3, 1984.
Prior to joining NASA, Brand was a commissioned officer and naval
aviator with the U.S. Marine Corps from 1953 to 1957. Following release
from active duty, he continued in Marine Corps Reserve and Air National
Guard jet fighter squadrons until 1964. Brand was employed as a civilian
by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation from 1960 to 1966. He was an
experimental test pilot on Canadian and German F-104 programs and has
logged 8,777 flying hours, which includes 7,312 hours in jets, 391 hours
in helicopters, 531 hours in spacecraft and checkout in more than 30
types of military aircraft.
Guy S. Gardner, 42, Col. USAF, will serve as Pilot. Selected as an
astronaut in 1980, he considers Alexandria, Va., to be his hometown.
STS-35 will be his second Shuttle flight.
Gardner was Pilot for STS-27, a 4-day flight of Atlantis launched
Dec. 2, 1988. The mission carried a Department of Defense payload. The
crew completed their mission with a lakebed landing at Edwards on Dec.
Gardner graduated from George Washington High School in
Alexandria in 1965. He received a bachelor of science degree in
engineering sciences, astronautics and mathematics from the USAF
Academy in 1969 and a master of science degree in astronautics from
Purdue University in 1970.
After completing pilot training, he flew 177 combat missions in
Southeast Asia in 1972 while stationed at Udorn, Thailand. In 1973, he
flew F-4's and in 1975 attended the USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards.
In 1977-78 he was an instructor pilot at the USAF Test Pilot School. He
has logged over 4,000 hours flying time and 105 hours in space.
Jeffrey A. Hoffman, 45, will serve as Mission Specialist 1 (MS1). Selected
as an astronaut in 1978, he was born in Brooklyn, N.Y. STS-35 will be his
second Shuttle flight.
Hoffman was a Mission Specialist aboard Discovery on STS-51D,
which launched from the Kennedy Space Center in April 1985. On this
mission, he made the first STS contingency spacewalk, in an attempted
rescue of the malfunctioning Syncom IV-3 satellite.
Hoffman graduated from Scarsdale High School, Scarsdale, N.Y.,
and received a bachelor of arts degree in astronomy from Amherst
College in 1966. He received a doctor of philosophy in astrophysics from
Harvard University in 1971 and a masters degree in materials science
from Rice University in 1988.
At NASA, Hoffman has worked as the astronaut office payload safety
representative. He also has worked on extravehicular activity (EVA),
including the development of a high-pressure space suit.
John M. "Mike" Lounge, 43, will be Mission Specialist 2 (MS2).
Selected as an astronaut in 1980, Lounge considers Burlington, Colo., to
be his hometown. He will be making his third Shuttle flight.
Lounge was a mission specialist on STS-51I conducted in August
1985. During that mission his duties included deployment of the
Australian AUSSAT communications satellite and operation of the remote
manipulator system (RMS) arm. The crew deployed two other
communications satellites and also performed a successful on-orbit
rendezvous and repair of the ailing SYNCOM IV-3 satellite. His second
flight was aboard Discovery on STS-26 in September 1988.
Lounge graduated from Burlington High School in 1964 and
received a bachelor of science degree in physics and mathematics from
the U.S. Naval Academy in 1969 and a master of science degree in
astrogeophysics from the University of Colorado in 1970. At NASA,
Lounge now serves as Chief of the Space Station Support Office which
works with design and operation of the Freedom space station.
Robert Allan Ridley Parker, 53, will serve as Mission Specialist 3
(MS3). Selected as an astronaut in 1967, he grew up in Shrewsbury,
Mass., and will be making his second Shuttle flight.
Parker was a member of the astronaut support crews for Apollo 15
and 17 missions. He served as a mission specialist on Columbia's sixth
space flight, STS-9, in November 1983 which was the first Spacelab
Parker attended primary and secondary schools in Shrewsbury,
Mass.; received a bachelor of arts degree in astronomy and physics from
Amherst College in 1958, and a doctorate in astronomy from the
California Institute of Technology in 1962.
Samuel T. Durrance, 46, will serve as a Payload Specialist.
Durrance is a research scientist in the Department of Physics and
Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. He considers
Tampa, Fla., his hometown.
Durrance has made International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite
observations of Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. He helped
develop special pointing techniques needed to observe solar system
objects with that satellite. His main astronomical interests are in the
origin and evolution of planets, both in this solar system and around other
Durrance received a bachelor of science degree and a master of
science degree in physics from California State University and a doctor of
philosophy degree in astrogeophysics from the University of Colorado.
Ronald A. Parise, 38, also will serve as a Payload Specialist. Parise
is a senior scientist in the Space Observatories Department, Computer
Science Corporation in Silver Spring, Md. He is a member of the
research team for the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope, one of the
instruments scheduled for flight as part of the Astro payload. He is from
Parise has participated in flight hardware development, electronic
system design and mission planning activities for the Ultraviolet Imaging
Telescope project. He is pursuing his astronomical research interests
with the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite under a NASA grant.
Parise also will conduct the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)
during the STS-35 mission.
He received a bachelor of science degree in physics, with minors in
mathematics, astronomy and geology from Youngstown State University,
Ohio, and a master of science degree and a doctor of philosophy degree
in astronomy from the University of Florida.
STS-35 MISSION MANAGEMENT
Office of Space Flight
Dr. William B. Lenoir - Associate Administrator
Joseph B. Mahon - Director, Flight Systems
Robert L. Crippen - Director, Space Shuttle
Leonard S. Nicholson - Deputy Director, Space Shuttle (Program)
Brewster Shaw - Deputy Director, Space Shuttle (Operations)
Office of Space Science and Applications
Dr. Lennard A. Fisk - Associate Administrator
Alphonso V. Diaz - Deputy Associate Administrator
Robert Benson - Director, Flight Systems Division
Dr. Charles Pellerin, Jr. - Director, Astrophysics Division
William Huddleston - Astro Program Manager
Dr. Edward Weiler - Astro Program Scientist
Dr. David Huenemoerder - Deputy Program Scientist
Office of Space Operations
Charles T. Force - Associate Administrator
Eugene Ferrick - Director, Tracking & Data Relay Satellite
Robert M. Hornstein - Director, Ground Networks Division
Ames Research Center
Dr. Dale L. Compton - Director
Victor L. Peterson - Deputy Director
Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility
Kenneth J. Szalai - Site Manager
Theodore G. Ayers - Deputy Site Manager
Thomas C. McMurtry - Chief, Research Aircraft
Larry C. Barnett - Chief, Shuttle Support Office
Goddard Space Flight Center
Dr. John Klineberg - Director
Peter T. Burr - Director of Flight Projects
Dale L. Fahnestock - Director of Mission Operations and
Data Systems Directorate
Dr. Theodore Gull - Astro Mission Scientist
Frank Volpe - BBXRT Manager
Bruce Thoman - BBXRT Operations Manager
Johnson Space Center
Aaron Cohen - Director
Eugene F. Kranz - Director, Mission Operations
Franklin Brizzolara - Payload Integration Manager
Kennedy Space Center
Forrest S. McCartney - Director
Jay Honeycutt - Director, Shuttle Management & Operations
Robert B. Sieck - Launch Director
John T. Conway - Director, Payload Management & Operations
Joanne H. Morgan - Director, Payload Project Management
Robert Sturm - Astro-1 Launch Site Support Manager
Langley Research Center
Richard H. Petersen - Director
W. Ray Hook - Director for Space
James P. Arrington - Chief, Space System Division
Marshall Space Flight Center
T. Jack Lee - Director
Jack Jones - Astro Mission Manager
Stuart Clifton - Assistant Mission Manager
Dr. Eugene Urban - Deputy Mission Scientist
Thomas Rankin - Payload Operations Director
Fred Applegate - Payload Operations Director
Steven Noneman - Payload Operations Director
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