Info about Shuttle Flight STS- 30
SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION STS-30
PUBLIC AFFAIRS CONTACTS
Sarah Keegan/Barbara Selby
Office of Space Flight
NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
Charles Redmond/Paula Cleggett-Haleim
Office of Space Science and Applications
NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
Office of Commercial Programs
NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.
Stennis Space Center, Bay St. Louis, Miss.
Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, Calif.
Robert J. MacMillin
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
GENERAL RELEASE 1
GENERAL INFORMATION 2
STS-30 QUICK-LOOK FACTS 2
LAUNCH PREPARATION, COUNTDOWN AND LIFTOFF 3
IUS/MAGELLAN PRELAUNCH PAYLOAD PREPARATION AT KSC 4
STS-30 MISSION OBJECTIVES 4
MAJOR COUNTDOWN MILESTONES 5
SPACE SHUTTLE ABORT MODES 6
SUMMARY OF MAJOR FLIGHT ACTIVITIES 7
TRAJECTORY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS 8
LANDING AND POST-LANDING OPERATIONS 9
Mission Description 10
Magellan Spacecraft 11
Radar System 13
Command and Data Systems 15
Gravity Experiment 15
MAGELLAN SCIENCE TEAM 16
VENUS FACTS 16
MAGELLAN MISSION HIGHLIGHTS 16
RADAR INVESTIGATION GROUP 17
GRAVITY INVESTIGATION GROUP 17
INERTIAL UPPER STAGE 17
MESOSCALE LIGHTNING EXPERIMENT 20
MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH WITH THE FLUIDS 20
EXPERIMENT APPARATUS 21
Floating Zone Crystal Growth and Purification 21
Fluids Experiment Apparatus 22
AIR FORCE MAUI OPTICAL SITE TESTS 23
PAYLOAD AND VEHICLE WEIGHTS SUMMARY 23
STS-30 CARGO CONFIGURATION 24
SPACEFLIGHT TRACKING AND DATA NETWORK 25
CREW BIOGRAPHIES 26
NASA PROGRAM MANAGEMENT 29
SPACE SHUTTLE TO DEPLOY MAGELLAN PLANETARY SCIENCE MISSION
Space Shuttle mission STS-30 will deploy the Magellan
Venus-exploration spacecraft into low-Earth orbit, the first U.S.
planetary science mission launched since 1978 and the first
planetary probe to be deployed from the Shuttle.
Following deployment, Magellan will be propelled from Earth
orbit in to its Venus trajectory by an Air Force-developed,
Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster. The spacecraft will cruise
through space for some 15 months, including flying around the
Sun, before reaching its Venus destination in August 1990.
Magellan's orbit insertion rockets will be fired to slow the
explorer into a highly elipical orbit around planet Venus.
Magellan will complete 1 orbit of Venus every 189 minutes.
During its 243-day orbital mission, the spacecraft will acquire
surface imaging, radiometry, altimetry and gravitational data.
Magellan will map up to 90 percent of the surface of planet
Venus for the first time using a synthetic aperture radar
instrument to gather high resolution, mapping data.
Commander of the 29th Space Shuttle mission is David M.
Walker, captain, USN. Ronald J. Grabe, colonel, USAF, is pilot.
Walker flew as the pilot aboard Discovery on mission STS-51A
in November 1984, and Grabe was pilot of Atlantis on mission
STS-51J in October 1985.
Mission specialists are Norman E. Thagard, M.D.; Mary L.
Cleave, Ph.D.; and Mark C. Lee, major, USAF. Thagard
previously flew as a mission specialist on STS-7 in June 1983
and STS-51B in April 1985. Cleave previously flew on STS-61B
in November 1985. Lee is making his first Space Shuttle flight.
Liftoff of the fourth flight of orbiter Atlantis is scheduled
for 2:24 p.m. EDT, April 28, from Kennedy Space Center, Fla.,
launch complex 39-B, into a 160-nautical-mile, 28.85-degree
orbit. Nominal mission duration is 4 days, 56 minutes. Deorbit
is planned on orbit 64, with landing scheduled for 3:20 p.m.
EDT on May 2 at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.
Liftoff on April 28 could occur during an 18-minute period
beginning at 2:24 p.m. EDT. The launch window will grow each
day by 6 to 8 minutes, reaching a maximum of 121 minutes on
May 13. From May 13 until the close of the window on May
28, the launch window each day would remain at 121 minutes
to protect a Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) abort capability.
The launch window increase is dictated by the need for a
daylight landing opportunity at the TAL sites.
Atlantis also will carry secondary payloads involving fluid
research in general liquid chemistry and electrical storm
studies. After landing, Atlantis will be towed to the NASA
Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, Calif., hoisted
atop the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft and ferried back to the
Kennedy Space Center to begin processing for its next flight.
NASA Select Television Transmission
The schedule for television transmissions from the orbiter and for
the change-of-shift briefings from Johnson Space Center, Houston, will
be available during the mission at Kennedy Space Center, Fla.; Marshall
Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.; Johnson Space Center, Houston;
and NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The television schedule will
be updated daily to reflect changes dictated by mission operations.
NASA Select television is available on Satcom F-2R, Transponder 13,
located at 72 degrees west longitude.
Special Note to Broadcasters
For approximately 5 days before launch, audio interview material
with the STS-30 crew will be available to broadcasters by calling
202/755-1788 between 8 a.m. to noon EDT, Monday through Friday. The
material will include short sound bites, with introduction, for a total
of 2 minutes. Tapes will be changed daily.
Status reports on the countdown, flight mission activities and
landing operations will be produced by the appropriate NASA news
An STS-30 mission press briefing schedule will be issued
prior to launch. During the mission, flight control personnel work
8-hour shifts. Change-of-shift briefings by the off-going flight
director will occur at approximately 8-hour intervals.
STS-30 QUICK LOOK
Launch Date: April 28, 1989
Launch Window: 2:24 p.m. - 2:42 p.m. EDT
Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center, Fla., Pad 39B
Orbiter: Atlantis (OV-104)
Altitude: 160 nautical miles
Inclination: 28.85 degrees
Duration: 4 days, 56 minutes
Landing Date/Time: May 2, 1989, 3:20 p.m. EDT
Primary Landing Site: Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.
Alternate Landing Sites:
Return to Launch Site - Kennedy Space Center
Transatlantic Abort Landing - Ben Guerir, Morocco
Abort Once Around - Edwards AFB
David M. Walker, commander
Ronald J. Grabe, pilot
Norman E. Thagard, mission specialist-1
Mary L. Cleave, mission specialist-2
Mark C. Lee, mission specialist-3
Primary Payload: Magellan
Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA)
Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLR)
SPACE SHUTTLE LAUNCH PREPARATIONS, COUNTDOWN AND LIFTOFF
Processing activities began on Atlantis for the STS-30 mission on
Dec. 14, 1988, when it was towed to Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF)
bay 2 after arrival from the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility.
Atlantis' most recent mission, STS-27, was completed with a Dec. 6,
1988, landing at Edwards Air Force Base. Post-flight deconfiguration
and inspections were conducted in the processing hangar.
As planned, the three main engines were removed and taken to the
main engine shop in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) or the
replacement of several components. During post-flight inspections,
technicians discovered cracks in one of the high- pressure oxidizer
turbopump bearing races on the number 3 main engine. That pump was
removed and sent to Rocketdyne for analysis. It was determined that
the most likely cause for the cracks was the presence of moisture
inside the pump which leads to stress corrosion. The buildup process
of oxidizer pumps was modified to eliminate the presence of moisture.
While in the VAB, main engine technicians replaced the turbopump
that had been sent to Rocketdyne for testing. The other two pumps were
replaced following rollout to the pad, where testing of all three new
pumps was conducted.
Atlantis' three main engines were installed while the vehicle was
in the OPF. Engine 2027 is installed in the number one position,
engine 2030 is in the number two position and engine 2029 is in the
number three position.
The right-hand orbital maneuvering system pod was removed in early
January and transferred to the Hypergolic Maintenance Facility for
repairs of a helium regulator that failed in flight. The regulator was
reinstalled on Feb. 9, 1989.
Stacking of solid rocket motor (SRM) segments for flight began
with the left aft booster on Mobile Launcher 1 in the Vehicle Assembly
Building on Jan. 2, 1989. Booster stacking operations were completed
by Feb. 19 and the external tank was mated to the two boosters on March
Flight crew members were at KSC on Feb. 4 for the crew equipment
interface test to become familiar with Atlantis' crew compartment and
equipment associated with the mission.
The assembled Space Shuttle vehicle was rolled out of the VAB
aboard its mobile launcher platform for the 4.2 mile-trip to Launch Pad
39B on March 22.
The terminal countdown demonstration test -- a dress rehearsal for
STS-30 launch countdown, the flight crew and the KSC launch team -- was
conducted April 6-7.
Preparations scheduled the last 2 weeks prior to launch countdown
included final vehicle ordnance activities, such as power-on
stray-voltage checks and resistance checks of firing circuits; loading
the fuel cell storage tanks; pressurizing the hypergolic propellant
tanks aboard the vehicle; final payload closeouts; and a final
functional check of the range safety and SRB ignition, safe and arm
The launch countdown is scheduled to pick up at the T-minus-
43-hour mark, leading up to the STS-30 launch. Atlantis' fourth launch
will be conducted by a joint NASA/industry team from Firing Room 1 in
the Launch Control Center at Complex 39.
IUS/MAGELLAN PRELAUNCH PAYLOAD PREPARATION AT KSC
The Magellan spacecraft arrived at KSC from Denver, Colo., on Oct.
8, 1988. It made the trip aboard a specially cushioned, instrumented
and environmentally controlled truck-trailer supplied by KSC. It was
taken to the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2)
planetary spacecraft check- out facility for integration.
The high-gain antenna was installed on Dec. 4, but removed later
to facilitate other payload element integration. The forward equipment
module and spacecraft upper body were mated with the liquid propulsion
module on Dec. 21. Magellan's radar module was installed on Jan. 6,
1989. The storable propellants used for mid-course corrections and
spacecraft control at Venus were loaded aboard on Jan. 18. The
spacecraft was then mated with the Star 48 solid propellant orbit
insertion motor on Feb. 3. The two solar panels were attached and
tested on Feb. 5.
Together with the Deep Space Network, testing was performed to
demonstrate the ability of the worldwide tracking network to
communicate with Magellan and to simulate Magellan's functions at
Venus. These tests also highlighted the unique characteristics that
will aid flight controllers in understanding idiosyncrasies in the
spacecraft's performance enroute to Venus and while in orbit around the
On Feb. 15, the spacecraft was relocated from SAEF-2 to the
Vertical Processing Facility for mating with its Inertial Upper Stage
booster 2 days later.
On Feb. 18, a week of integrated testing began. The electrical
connections between the IUS and Magellan were verified, and a test was
run to affirm the ability of all the principal ground control
facilities and the Deep Space Network to communicate with the payload.
The high-gain antenna was reintegrated with the spacecraft on Feb.
26 and tested for flight. A test also was run to simulate the
payload's deployment from Atlantis. STS-30 astronauts Mark Lee and
Mary Cleave participated in the deployment exercise.
Riding in the payload canister atop the associated transporter,
the IUS/Magellan payload was transported to the launch pad on March
17. The payload was installed in the payload bay of Atlantis on March
25. An integrated electrical test with the orbiter was performed.
This was followed by testing to verify that the principal ground
stations could communicate with IUS/Magellan via the communications
systems of the Space Shuttle.
STS-30 MISSION OBJECTIVES
The primary objective of this Space Shuttle mission is to
successfully deploy the Magellan spacecraft on its way to Venus.
Deployment will occur on orbit 5, 6 hours, 18 minutes into the
mission. Alternate deployment opportunities are available on orbits 6
and 7, with additional backup deployment opportunities available
throughout flight day 2.
Additionally, the Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA) and Mesoscale
Lightning Experiment (MLE) middeck experiments and Air Force Maui
Optical Site (AMOS), along with Detailed Test Objectives (DTO) and
Detailed Secondary Objectives (DSO) will be performed during the
The objectives of the Magellan mission are to obtain radar images
of more than 70 percent of Venus' surface, a near-global topographic
map and near-global gravity field data. The mission should help
develop an understanding of the planet's geological evolution,
particularly its density distribution and dynamics.
MAJOR COUNTDOWN MILESTONES
T-43 Hours Power up the Space Shuttle vehicle.
T-30 Hours Activate orbiter's navigation aids.
T-27 Hours (holding) Enter the first built-in hold for 8 hours.
T-27 Hours (counting) Begin preparations for loading fuel cell storage
tanks with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen reactants.
T-25 Hours Load the orbiter's fuel cell tanks with liquid oxygen.
T-22 Hours, 30 minutes Load the orbiter's fuel cell tanks with liquid
T-22 Hours Perform interface check between Houston Mission Control and
the Merritt Island Launch Area (MILA) tracking station.
T-20 Hours Activate and warm up inertial measurement units (IMUs).
T-19 Hours (holding) Enter 8-hour built-in hold.
T-19 Hours (counting) Resume countdown.
T-18 Hours Activate orbiter communications system.
T-11 Hours (holding) Start 15 hour, 4-minute built-in hold. Perform orbiter
ascent switch list in the orbiter flight and mid-decks.
T-11 Hours (counting) Retract Rotating Service Structure from vehicle to
T-9 Hours Activate orbiter's fuel cells.
T-8 Hours Configure Mission Control communications for launch. Start
clearing blast danger area.
T-6 Hours, 30 minutes Perform Eastern Test Range open loop command test.
T-6 Hours (holding) Enter 1-hour built-in hold.
T-6 Hours (counting) Start external tank chilldown and propellant loading.
T-5 Hours Start IMU pre-flight calibration.
T-4 Hours Perform MILA antenna alignment.
T-3 Hours (holding) 2-hour built-in hold begins. Loading the external tank
is complete and is in a stable replenish mode. Ice team goes to pad
for inspections. Closeout crew goes to white room to begin preparing
orbiter's cabin for the flight crew's entry. Wake flight crew (launch
minus 4 hours, 55 minutes).
T-3 Hours (counting) Resume countdown.
T-2 Hours, 55 minutes Flight crew departs O&C Building for Launch Pad 39-B
(Launch minus 3 hours, 15 minutes).
T-2 Hours, 30 minutes Crew enters orbiter vehicle (Launch minus 2 Hours,
T-60 minutes Start pre-flight alignment of IMUs.
T-20 minutes (holding) 10-minute built-in hold begins.
T-20 minutes (counting) Configure orbiter computers for launch.
T-10 minutes White room closeout crew cleared through the launch danger area
T-9 minutes (holding) Enter 1 hour, 10-minute built-in hold. Perform status
check and receive Launch Director and Mission Management Team "go."
T-9 minutes (counting) Start ground launch sequencer.
T-7 minutes, 30 sec. Retract orbiter access arm.
T-5 minutes Pilot starts auxiliary power units. Arm range safety, SRB
T-4 minutes, 55 sec. Start liquid oxygen drainback.
T-3 minutes, 30 sec. Orbiter goes on internal power.
T-2 minutes, 55 sec. Pressurize liquid oxygen tank for flight and retract
gaseous oxygen vent hood.
T-1 minute, 57 sec. Pressurize liquid hydrogen tank.
T-31 seconds "Go" from ground computer for orbiter computers to start the
automatic launch sequence.
T-28 seconds Start solid rocket booster hydraulic power units.
T-21 seconds Start SRB gimbal profile test.
T-6.6 seconds Main engine start.
T-3 seconds Main engines at 90 percent thrust.
T-0 SRB ignition, holddown-post release and liftoff.
T+7 seconds Shuttle clears launch tower and control switches to Houston.
SPACE SHUTTLE ABORT MODES
Space Shuttle launch abort philosophy aims toward safe and intact
recovery of the flight crew, orbiter and its payload. Abort modes
* Abort-To-Orbit (ATO) -- Partial loss of main engine thrust late
enough to permit reaching a minimal 105-nautical mile orbit with
orbital maneuvering system engines.
* Abort-Once-Around (AOA) -- Earlier main engine shutdown with the
capability to allow one orbit around before landing at Edwards Air
Force Base, Calif.; White Sands Space Harbor (Northrup Strip), N.M.; or
the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
* Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) -- Loss of two main engines
midway through powered flight would force a landing at Ben Guerir,
Morocco; Moron, Spain; or Banjul, The Gambia.
* Return-To-Launch-Site (RTLS) -- Early shutdown of one or more
engines and without enough energy to reach Ben Guerir, would result in
a pitch around and thrust back toward KSC until within gliding distance
of the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF).
STS-30 contingency landing sites are Edwards AFB, White Sands,
Kennedy Space Center, Ben Guerir, Moron and Banjul.
SUMMARY OF MAJOR FLIGHT ACTIVITIES
Magellan/Inertial Upper Stage deploy
Magellan/IUS backup deploy opportunity
Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) tests
Detailed Test Objective (DTO)/Detailed Secondary
Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA)
Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE)
Flight control systems checkout
Landing at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.
STS-30 TRAJECTORY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
EVENT MET VELOCITY MACH ALTITUDE
(d:h:m:s) (fps) (ft)
Begin Roll Maneuver 0/00:00:09 183 .16 774
End Roll Maneuver 0/00:00:17 365 .32 2,825
SSME Throttle Down to 65% 0/00:00:30 711 .64 9,043
Max. Dyn. Pressure (Max Q) 0/00:00:59 1,368 1.35 35,133
SSME Throttle Up to 104% 0/00:01:02 1,428 1.43 37,284
SRB Staging 0/00:02:05 4,212 3.93 153,405
Negative Return 0/00:03:58 6,915 7.39 319,008
Main Engine Cutoff (MECO) 0/00:08:31 24,286 22.70 362,243
Zero Thrust 0/00:08:38
ET Separation 0/00:08:45
OMS 1 Burn 0/00:10:31
OMS 2 Burn 0/00:44:27
Magellan/IUS Deploy (orbit 5) 0/06:18:00
Deorbit Burn (orbit 64) 3/23:53:00
Landing (orbit 65) 4/00:53:00
Apogee, Perigee at MECO: 85 x 3 nm
Apogee, Perigee post-OMS 1: 160 x 51 nm
Apogee, Perigee post-OMS 2: 160 x 160 nm
Apogee, Perigee post-deploy: 176 x 161 nm
LANDING AND POST-LANDING OPERATIONS
The Kennedy Space Center is responsible for ground operations of
the orbiter once it has rolled to a stop on the runway at Edwards Air
Force Base. Those operations include preparing the Shuttle for the
return trip to Kennedy.
After landing, the flight crew aboard Atlantis begins "safing"
vehicle systems. Immediately after wheelstop, specially garbed
technicians will first determine that any residual hazardous vapors are
below significant levels in order for other safing operations to
A mobile white room is moved into place around the crew hatch once
it is verified that there are no concentrations of toxic gases around
the forward part of the vehicle. The crew is expected to leave
Atlantis about 45 to 50 minutes after landing. As the crew exits,
technicians enter the orbiter to complete the vehicle safing activity.
Once the initial aft safety assessment is made, access vehicles
are positioned around the rear of the orbiter so that lines from the
ground purge and cooling vehicles can be connected to the umbilical
panels on the aft end of Atlantis.
Freon line connections are completed and coolant begins
circulating through the umbilicals to aid in heat rejection and protect
the orbiter's electronic equipment. Other lines provide cooled,
humidified air to the payload bay and other cavities to remove any
residual fumes and provide a safe environment inside Atlantis. A tow
tractor will be connected to Atlantis and the vehicle will be pulled
off the runway at Edwards and positioned inside the Mate/Demate Device
at the nearby Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. After the Shuttle
has been jacked and leveled, residual fuel cell cryogenics are drained
and unused pyrotechnic devices are disconnected prior to returning the
orbiter to Kennedy.
The aerodynamic tail cone is installed over the three main
engines, and the orbiter is bolted on top of the 747 Shuttle Carrier
Aircraft for the ferry flight back to Florida. Pending completion of
planned work and favorable weather conditions, the 747 would depart
California about 6 days after landing for the cross-country ferry
flight back to Florida. A refueling stop is necessary to complete the
Once back at Kennedy, Atlantis will be towed inside the
hangar-like Orbiter Processing Facility for post-flight inspections and
in-flight anomaly troubleshooting. These operations are conducted in
parallel with the start of routine systems reverification to prepare
Atlantis for its next mission.
The Magellan mission will map up to 90 percent of the surface of
Venus to a high degree of resolution. The spacecraft's primary science
instrument is an imaging radar, called a Synthetic Aperture Radar
(SAR). In addition to mapping, precise tracking of Magellan radio
signals will improve our knowledge of the Venusian gravity field.
Magellan is the first planetary probe to be launched from a Space
Shuttle and the first planetary spacecraft to be launched in nearly 11
The imaging radar is capable of performing both surface imaging
and altitude measurements. It is able to resolve surface features
measuring from about 120 meters near the equator to about 300 meters
near the north pole through the thick clouds that perpetually shroud
the planet. The altimeter will measure elevations accurate to about 30
Following insertion into Venus orbit in August 1990, approximately
18 days will be spent checking out the spacecraft and its imaging
radar. The prime mapping mission then will begin, lasting 243 Earth
days or 1 Venus day.
A proposed extended mission would be used to map those areas
missed when the Sun is between Venus and Earth and when Venus is
between the spacecraft and Earth. It also would be used to determine
irregularities in the planet's interior by measuring gravity.
Magellan's trajectory to Venus is called a Type IV transfer. It
requires the spacecraft to go one and one-half times around the Sun
before it goes into orbit around Venus. Although the Type IV transfer
has advantages of lower launch energy and lower Venus approach speed,
the main reason for using this trajectory is that it allows the Galileo
mission to be launched by the Shuttle in October 1989, the launch time
required by Magellan for the shorter and faster trajectory to Venus.
In the mapping orbit, the spacecraft will approach the planet as
close as 155 miles. That is called periapsis. At its furthest point
in its elliptical orbit, the spacecraft will be 4,977 miles from the
planet's surface. That is apoapsis. Magellan will make one orbit
every 3 hours, 9 minutes.
The approach to Venus is over the northern hemisphere with a
mapping swath that goes from north to south. The radar mapping is done
for a 37-minute period each orbit when the spacecraft is close to the
planet, and when it is at apoapsis, it transmits the data back to
The mapping profile of Magellan includes two swaths of coverage
done alternately, one beginning further north than the next. As the
spacecraft approaches the planet, it will begin mapping the north swath
at 90 degrees north latitude and continue to 54 degrees south
latitude. On the next orbit, it will begin 4.7 minutes later for the
south swath and begin mapping at 76 degrees north latitude and continue
to 68 degrees south.
Magellan will make 1,852 mapping swaths around the planet during
the primary mission. Mapping data are transmitted back to Earth at
268.8 kilobits per second. The data are received by the 70-meter
tracking station network, that is, the largest radio telescopes of the
Deep Space Network locations at Goldstone, Calif.; near Madrid, Spain;
and at Canberra, Australia.
As each orbit continues toward apoapsis, the spacecraft plays back
the data to Earth. During this time, it interrupts its playback to
make star calibrations to confirm its attitude data base. Magellan
looks at the positions of two stars in the sky and compares them with a
star map in its computer. This fixes its attitude in relation to the
planet. Then it resumes its data playback. When the second playback
is completed the antenna is rotated back toward the planet for the next
The Magellan spacecraft was designed and constructed by Martin
Marietta Astronautics Group, Denver, Colo. The height of the
spacecraft is 21 feet. It is 15 ft. in diameter and weighs 7,604
Several subsystems make up the spacecraft system. They include
the structure, thermal control, power, attitude control, propulsion,
command data and data storage, and tele- communications.
The structure is composed of four major sections: the high- gain
antenna, forward equipment module, spacecraft bus including solar array
and orbit-insertion stage.
The high-gain antenna is used as the antenna for the synthetic
aperture radar as well as the primary antenna for the
telecommunications system to send data back to Earth. The 11.8-ft.
diameter parabolic dish is made of strong, lightweight graphite epoxy
sheets mounted on an aluminum honeycomb for rigidity. It is a spare
from the Voyager project.
There also is a cone-shaped medium-gain antenna used for receiving
commands by and sending engineering data from Magellan during the
15-month cruise from Earth. A low-gain antenna provides the ground
team with an alternative means of commanding the spacecraft in case of
an emergency that prevents use of normal data rates.
The altimeter antenna is mounted to one side of the high- gain
antenna and is pointed vertically down at the surface of the planet
during the radar data acquisitions.
The forward equipment module contains the radar electronics, the
reaction wheels which control the spacecraft's attitude in space and
other subsystem components.
The bus is a 10-sided structure consisting of the remainder of the
subsystem components, including the solar panel array, star scanner,
medium-gain antenna, rocket engine modules, command data and data
storage subsystem, monopropellant tank and a nitrogen tank for
The orbit insertion stage contains a Star 48 solid rocket motor to
place the spacecraft into orbit around Venus. Once in orbit, the motor
casing is jettisoned.
A combination of louvers, thermal blankets, passive coatings and
heat-dissipating elements are used to control the spacecraft's
temperature. The normal operating temperature range for the spacecraft
components is between 25 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit.
Power for the spacecraft and the experiments is provided by two
solar panels with a total area of 12.6 square meters. The array is
capable of producing 1,200 watts. Both direct (dc) and alternating
current (ac) are provided with dc power at 28 to 35 volts and ac power
at 2.4 kilohertz.
Two 30-amp hour, 26-cell nickel cadmium batteries provide power
when the spacecraft is in the shadow of the planet and allow normal
spacecraft operations independent of solar illumination. The batteries
remain charged by using power provided by the solar arrays.
The three reaction wheels, which control the spacecraft's attitude
in relation to the planet, are driven by electric motors and store
momentum while they are spinning. At a point in each orbit near
apoapsis, the monopropellant rocket motors are used to counteract the
torque on the spacecraft as the reaction wheels are despun to eliminate
the excess momentum. There is one reaction wheel for each of the
spacecraft's three axes -- yaw, pitch and roll.
The Star 48 rocket used to put the spacecraft into orbit around
Venus weighs 4,721 lbs., of which 4,430 lbs. are fuel. It has a thrust
of 15,232 lbs.
The spacecraft also has 24 thrusters used for trajectory
correction and attitude control. Eight of the thrusters have 100 lbs.
of thrust each. Four have 5 lbs. of thrust and 12 have 0.2 lb. of
thrust. The smallest thrusters are used for attitude control and
momentum unloading of the spacecraft at apoapsis.
The radar system was built by the Hughes Aircraft Company, Space
and Communications Group. The radar is used for Venus mapping because
it can penetrate the thick clouds covering the planet. Optical
photography cannot penetrate the clouds.
Real aperture radars can be used to make images, but the
resolution is poor. Magellan's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) will
create high-resolution images by using computer processing on Earth to
simulate a large antenna on the spacecraft. The onboard radar system
will operate as though it has a huge antenna, hundreds of meters long.
The antenna is actually 12 ft. in diameter.
The radar system will measure the strength of the received signals
(brightness), how long each signal took to make the round-trip to the
target point and back (range) and changes in the signal frequency
(pitch) resulting from the spacecraft's motion. That information will
allow computers on Earth to develop high-resolution pictures from the
The SAR is sometimes called a side-looking radar because it looks
at its target at an angle to the side of the flight path, while the
altimetry radar looks straight down.
A digital computer on Earth forms elements of the image by taking
into account the time delay, the phase (or frequency) of the radar wave
and the magnitude of the radar return echo as the spacecraft moves
along its path.
While the primary function of the SAR is imaging, it also performs
altimetry and radiometry. In the imaging mode, the radar views Venus
with the large mapping antenna. The length of the synthetic aperture
varies with the altitude and speed of Magellan as it flies by. At its
closest point to the planet, the resolution will be about 120 meters.
In the altimetry mode, it uses a separate antenna to look at the planet
directly beneath the spacecraft and determines vertical features to a
resolution of about 30 meters.
When the radar system is operated in the passive mode it operates
as a radiometer and measures natural thermal emissions from the
surface. That will help scientists determine the composition of
Command and Data System (CDDS)
The brain of the spacecraft is its command and data system. It
receives commands transmitted from Earth and controls the spacecraft in
response to those commands. The system also controls the acquisition
and storage on tape recorders of scientific data and sends that
information back to Earth through the radio frequency subsystem.
The core of the system consists of computers in redundant pairs.
All are fully reprogrammable and all are modified Galileo equipment.
The system, called the CDDS, stores commands for up to 3 days of
radar operation during the orbit phase. There also is a provision for
receiving and executing separate commands transmitted from the ground.
Engineering data normally will be transmitted to Earth in real time.
When a real-time link is not possible, the data will be tape recorded
and played back on a high-rate link.
The imaging radar data will be stored on two multitrack digital
tape recorders for later playback over the high-rate band. There is no
provision for real-time transmission of the SAR data because the large
antenna must be pointed at Venus during mapping.
The data storage capacity of the two digital tape recorders is
about 1.8 billion bits. The recorders will be used primarily for the
recording of SAR data, but low-rate engineering data can be stored
during mapping or other periods when engineering data cannot be
transmitted back to Earth in real time.
An experiment to measure Venus' density at different locations
will use the radio subsystem. The gravity measurements will be taken
when the high-gain antenna is pointed toward Earth, instead of the
surface of Venus, and is in a radio transmission mode.
When a spacecraft is close to a massive body such as Venus, it
experiences changes in acceleration due to irregularities in the
density of the planet. Those speed variations can be determined by
measuring the speed of the spacecraft every few seconds with an
Earth-based radio tracking system. The changes in speed are gravity
The differences in speed will be very small, but even a small
speed-up would be apparent by measuring the doppler shift of the radio
wave. It would indicate a planet area of greater density. If the
spacecraft showed a small deceleration, it would indicate an area of
lesser density. These readings would give scientists a better
understanding of the planet's interior.
Since Venus rotates very slowly beneath the orbiting spacecraft,
one orbit profile will be very similar to the one preceding it. If
many sequential orbits are obtained, their gravity profiles can be
added to the topographic map.
With the present mission geometry, high-resolution gravity data
will not be obtained until well into the extended mission. Then the
gravity data will be acquired for only 160 more days because the Sun
will come between the spacecraft and Earth for a period of time.
This factor limits the global gravity coverage to 66 percent.
However, there is a subsequent period of 265 days during which
complete high-resolution global coverage can be obtained without
interference caused by planetary positions.
MAGELLAN SCIENCE TEAM
The Magellan science team includes members representing five
nations. Investigators were selected by NASA from institutions
scattered throughout the United States: Aerospace Corporation,
Geological Technology Research Institute, National Astronomy and
Ionosphere Center of Cornell University (Puerto Rico), Rand Corp.,
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and Vexcel Corp.
University participation is through the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology; Brown, Southern Methodist, Stanford and Washington
Universities; and the Universities of Arizona, Arkansas and
California. Governmental agency participants are from NASA centers and
the U.S. Geological Survey.
International investigators come from the Australian National
University, the Canada Center for Remote Sensing, the Universities of
London and Oxford and Ballard Laboratories (England), and the Group de
Recherches de Geodesie Spatiale and the Observatoire de
Radius: 3,630 miles
Rotational Period: 243 Earth days
Orbit Period: 225 Earth days
Distance from Sun: 64,920,000 miles
Density: 5.2 times that of water
Surface Gravity: .907 times that of Earth's gravity
Atmospheric Pressure at Surface: 90 times that of Earth's
Temperature at Surface: 850 degrees Fahrenheit
Atmospheric Composition: Carbon dioxide (96%); nitrogen
(3+%); trace amounts of sulfur dioxide, water vapor,
carbon monoxide, argon, helium, neon,
hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride
MAGELLAN MISSION HIGHLIGHTS
Interplanetary Cruise: 442 - 468 days
Planned Trajectory Correction Maneuvers - 15 days after
deployment from Shuttle; 360 days after
deployment from Shuttle; and 17 days before
Venus orbit insertion
Orbit Insertion: Aug. 10, 1990, 1700 GMT, STAR 48 solid
rocket motor fires to put spacecraft in orbit around Venus
Mapping Orbit Period: 3.15 hours
Radar Mapping: 37 minutes per orbit
Mapping Orbit Inclination: 86 degrees
Superior Conjunction: Oct. 26 - Nov. 9, 1990
End of Nominal Mission: April 28, 1991
Data Gap Recoverable: June 27 - July 10, 1991
RADAR INVESTIGATION GROUP
Gordon H. Pettengill (Principal Investigator), Massachusetts
Institute of Technology
Raymond E. Arvidson, Washington University
Victor R. Baker, University of Arizona
Joseph H. Binsack, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Joseph M. Boyce, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Donald B. Campbell, National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center
Merton E. Davies, Rand Corporation
Charles Elachi, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California
Institute of Technology
John E. Guest, University College London
James W. Head, III, Brown University
William M. Kaula, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric
Kurt L. Lambeck, The Australian National University
Franz W. Leberl, Vexcel Corporation
Harold Masursky, U.S. Geological Survey
Daniel P. McKenzie, Ballard Laboratories
Barry E. Parsons, University of Oxford
Roger J. Phillips, Southern Methodist University
R. Keith Raney, Canada Center for Remote Sensing
R. Stephen Saunders, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
California Institute of Technology
Gerald Schaber, U.S. Geological Survey
Gerald Schubert, University of California at Los Angeles
Laurence A. Soderblom, U.S. Geological Survey
Sean C. Solomon, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
H. Ray Stanley, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Manik Talwani, Geological Technology Research Institute
G. Leonard Tyler, Stanford University
John A. Wood, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
Gravity Investigation Group
Michel Lefebvre (Principal Investigator), Centre National
William L. Sjogren (Principal Investigator), NASA's Jet
Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
Georges Balmino, Center National d'Etudes Spatiales
Nicole Borderies, Center National d'Etudes Spatiales
Bernard Moynot, Center National d'Etudes Spatiales
Mohan Ananda, Aerospace Corporation
INERTIAL UPPER STAGE
The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) will be used with the Space Shuttle
to transport NASA's Magellan spacecraft out of Earth's orbit to Venus,
some 26 million miles from Earth.
IUS-18, the IUS to be used on mission STS-30, is a two-stage
solid-propellant vehicle weighing approximately 32,500 pounds.
The IUS is 17 feet long and 9.25 ft. in diameter. It consists of
an aft skirt; an aft stage solid rocket motor (SRM) containing
approximately 21,400 lb. of propellant and generating approximately
42,000 lb. of thrust; an interstage; a forward stage SRM with 6,000 lb.
of propellant generating approximately 18,000 lb. of thrust; and an
equipment support section.
The equipment support section contains the avionics, which provide
guidance, navigation, control, telemetry, command and data management,
reaction control and electrical power. All mission-critical components
of the avionics system, along with thrust vector actuators, reaction
control thrusters, motor igniter and pyrotechnic stage separation
equipment are redundant to assure better than 98 percent reliability.
The IUS Airborne Support Equipment (ASE) is the mechanical,
avionics, and structural equipment located in the orbiter. The ASE
support the IUS and the Magellan in the orbiter payload bay and
elevates the Magellan/IUS combination on a tilt table to 52 degrees for
final checkout and deployment from the orbiter.
The IUS ASE consists of the structure, aft tilt-frame actuator,
batteries, electronics and cabling to support the Magellan/IUS
combination. These ASE subsystems enable the deployment of the
combined vehicle; provide, distribute and/or control electrical power
to the IUS and spacecraft; and serve as communication conduits between
the IUS and/or spacecraft and the orbiter.
The IUS structure is capable of supporting all the loads generated
internally and also by the cantilevered spacecraft during orbiter
operations and IUS free flight. In addition, the structure physically
supports all the equipment and solid rocket motors within the IUS, and
provides the mechanisms for IUS stage separation. The major structural
assemblies of the two- stage IUS are the equipment support section,
interstage and aft skirt. It is made of aluminum skin-stringer
construction, with longerons and ring frames.
The equipment support section houses the majority of the avionics
of the IUS. The top of the equipment support section contains the
spacecraft interface mounting ring and electrical interface connector
segment for mating and integrating the spacecraft with the IUS.
Thermal isolation is provided by a multilayer insulation blanket across
the interface between the IUS and Magellan.
The avionics subsystems consist of the telemetry, tracking, and
command subsystems; guidance and navigation subsystem; data management;
thrust vector control; and electrical power subsystems. These
subsystems include all the electronic and electrical hardware used to
perform all computations, signal conditioning, data processing, and
formatting associated with navigation, guidance, control, data and
redundancy management. The IUS avionics subsystems also provide the
equipment for communications between the orbiter and ground stations,
as well as electrical power distribution.
Attitude control in response to guidance commands is provided by
thrust vectoring during powered flight and by reaction control
thrusters while coasting.
Attitude is compared with guidance commands to generate error
signals. During solid motor firing, these commands gimble the IUS's
movable nozzle to provide the desired attitude pitch and yaw control.
The IUS's roll axis thrusters maintain roll control. While coasting,
the error signals are processed in the computer to generate thruster
commands to maintain the vehicle's attitude or to maneuver the
The IUS electrical power subsystem consists of avionics batteries,
IUS power distribution units, power transfer unit, utility batteries,
pyrotechnic switching unit, IUS wiring harness and umbilical, and
staging connectors. The IUS avionics system distributes electrical
power to the Magellan/IUS interface connector for all mission phases
from prelaunch to spacecraft separation.
The IUS two-stage vehicle uses both a large and small SRM. These
motors employ movable nozzles for thrust vector control. The nozzles
provide up to 4 degrees of steering on the large motor and 7 degrees on
the small motor. The large motor is the longest thrusting duration SRM
ever developed for space, with the capability to thrust as long as 150
seconds. Mission requirements and constraints (such as weight) can be
met by tailoring the amount of propellant carried.
The reaction control system controls the Magellan/IUS spacecraft
attitude during coasting; roll control during SRM thrustings; velocity
impulses for accurate orbit injection; and the final collision
As a minimum, the IUS includes one reaction control fuel tank with
a capacity of 120 lb. of hydrazine. Production options are available
to add a second or third tank; however, IUS-18 will require only one
tank, with 120 lb. of fuel.
To avoid spacecraft contamination, the IUS has no forward facing
thrusters. The reaction control system is also used to provide the
velocities for spacing between several spacecraft deployments and
avoiding collision or contamination after the spacecraft separates.
The Magellan spacecraft is physically attached to the IUS at eight
attachment points, providing substantial load carrying capability while
minimizing the transfer of heat across the connecting points. Power,
command and data transmission between the two are provided by several
IUS interface connectors. In addition, the IUS provides a multilayer
insulation blanket of aluminized Kapton with polyester net spacers
across the Magellan/IUS interface, along with an aluminized Beta cloth
outer layer. All IUS thermal blankets are vented toward and into the
IUS cavity, which in turn is vented to the orbiter payload bay. There
is no gas flow between the spacecraft and the IUS. The thermal
blankets are grounded to the IUS structure to prevent electrostatic
After the orbiter payload bay doors are opened in orbit, the
orbiter will maintain a preselected attitude to keep the payload within
thermal requirements and constraints.
On-orbit IUS predeployment checkout is accomplished, followed by
an IUS command link check and spacecraft communications check. Orbiter
trim maneuver(s) are normally performed at this time.
Forward payload restraints will be released and the aft frame of
the airborne support equipment will tilt the Magellan/IUS to 29
degrees. This will extend the payload into space just outside the
orbiter payload bay, allowing direct communication with Earth during
systems checkout. The orbiter will then be maneuvered to the
deployment attitude. If a problem has developed within the spacecraft
or IUS, the IUS and its payload can be restowed.
Prior to deployment, the spacecraft electrical power source will be
switched from orbiter power to IUS internal power by the orbiter flight
crew. After verifying that the spacecraft is on IUS internal power and
that all Magellan/IUS predeployment operations have been successfully
completed, a "Go/No-Go" decision for deployment will be sent to the
When the orbiter flight crew is given a "Go" decision, it will
activate the ordnance that separates the spacecraft's umbilical
cables. The crew will then command the electromechanical tilt actuator
to raise the tilt table to a 52-degree deployment position. The
orbiter's Reaction Control System (RCS) thrusters will be inhibited and
an ordnance separation device initiated to physically separate the
IUS/spacecraft combination from the tilt table. Compressed springs
provide the force to jettison the IUS/Magellan from the orbiter payload
bay at approximately 6 inches per second. The deployment is normally
performed in the shadow of the orbiter or in Earth eclipse.
The tilt table will then be lowered to minus 6 degrees after the
IUS and spacecraft are deployed. A small orbiter maneuver will be made
to back away from IUS/Magellan. Approximately 19 minutes after
deployment the orbiter's OMS engines will be ignited to move the
orbiter away from the IUS/spacecraft.
After deployment, IUS/Magellan is controlled by the IUS onboard
computers. Approximately 10 minutes after IUS/Magellan is deployed
from the orbiter, the IUS onboard computer will send out signals used
by the IUS and/or Magellan to begin mission sequence events. This
signal also will enable the RCS and initiate deployment of the
spacecraft's solar panels. All subsequent operations will be
sequenced by the IUS computer, from transfer orbit injection through
spacecraft separation and IUS deactivation.
After the RCS has been activated, the IUS will maneuver to the
required thermal attitude and perform any required spacecraft thermal
At approximately 45 minutes after deployment from the orbiter, the
ordnance inhibits for the first SRM will be removed. The belly of the
orbiter already will have been oriented towards the IUS/Magellan
combination to protect the orbiter windows from the IUS's plume. The
IUS will recompute the first ignition time and maneuvers necessary to
attain the proper attitude for the first thrusting period. When the
proper transfer orbit opportunity is reached, the IUS computer will
send the signal to ignite the first-stage motor. After firing
approximately 150 seconds, the IUS first stage will have expended its
fuel and will be separated from the IUS second stage.
Approximately 2.5 minutes after first-stage burnout, the
second-stage motor will be ignited, thrusting about 108 seconds. The
IUS second stage will then separate and perform a final
collision/contamination avoidance maneuver before deactivating.
The IUS was developed and built by Boeing Aerospace, Seattle,
under contract to the Air Force Systems Command's Space Systems
Division. The Space Systems Division is executive agent for all
Department of Defense activities pertaining to the Space Shuttle system
and provides the IUS to NASA for Shuttle use.
MESOSCALE LIGHTNING EXPERIMENT
The Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE) is designed to obtain
nighttime images of lightning in an attempt to better understand what
effects lightning discharges have on each other, on nearby storm
systems, on storm microbursts and wind patterns, and other
interrelationships over an extremely large geographical area. This
information could lead to better Earth weather prediction models for
use in airline operations and such applications as lightning early
warning systems for outdoor crews of oil derricks, electrical power
companies, large cranes and construction equipment.
In recent years, NASA has used high-altitude U-2 aircraft
instrumented to conduct atmospheric and electricity research over the
tops of active thunderstorms. The objectives of these flights have
been to determine some of the baseline design requirements for a
satellite-borne optical lightning mapper sensor, to study the overall
optical and electrical characteristics
of lightning as viewed from above cloudtops and to investigate the
relationship between storm electrical development and the structure,
dynamics and evolution of thunderstorms and thunderstorm systems.
Since scientists largely have satisfied the need to acquire a
quantitative data base for design of a lightning mapper sensor, the
lightning research goals now focus primarily on characterizing the
types of optical and electrical signals it produces.
As such, many of the U-2 flights have been coordinated with large
ground-based meteorological centers and satellites to gather data on
lightning using doppler and conventional radar, ground-based and
airborne electricity and microphysical observations, detailed
precipitation measurements, ground strike lightning mapping, and
visible and infrared Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite
Electric field meters and conductivity probes have been added
recently to the U-2 instrument package to measure electric fields and
conductivity. This provides a means to estimate the current flowing
from a thunderstorm to the ionosphere. But optically, the area
photographed by an aircraft is limited by the maximum height it can
fly. To document large or mesoscale areas, video must be obtained from
satellites or the Space Shuttle.
The MLE will employ Shuttle payload bay cameras to observe
lightning discharges at night from active storms. Using the Shuttle's
payload bay color video camera augmented by a 35mm handheld still
picture camera with 400 ASA film, the Shuttle cameras' 40-degree field
of vision will cover an area rougly 200 by 150 nautical miles directly
below the Shuttle.
Astronauts also will document mesoscale storm systems that are
oblique to the Shuttle but near NASA ground-based!lightning detection
facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., Kennedy
Space Center, Fla. and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration's Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Okla.
The Shuttle payload bay camera system will be stationary, pointed
directly below the orbiter. The imagery will be analyzed for the
frequency of flashes, the size of the lightning and its brightness.
Experiment investigators will analyze the lightning data taken
from the Shuttle as well as information from the ground- based
lightning detection network. Otha H. Vaughan, Jr., is principal
investigator. Co-investigators are Dr. Bernard Vonnegut, State
University of New York, Albany; Dr. Marx Brook, New Mexico Institute
of Mining and Technology, Socorro; and Dr. Richard Blakeslee, Marshall
Space Flight Center. Gregory Wilson is the Marshall mission manager.
MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH WITH THE FLUIDS EXPERIMENT APPARATUS
Rockwell International, through its Space Transportation Systems
Division, Downey, Calif., is engaged in a joint endeavor agreement
(JEA) with NASA's Office of Commercial Programs in the field for
floating zone crystal growth research. The agreement, signed on March
17, 1987, provides for microgravity experiments to be performed in the
company's microgravity laboratory, the Fluids Experiment Apparatus
(FEA), on two Space shuttle missions.
Under the sponsorship of the NASA Office of Commercial Programs,
the FEA will fly aboard Atlantis on STS-30. Rockwell's Space
Transportation Systems Division is responsibe for developing the FEA
hardware and for integrating the experiment payload. Rockwell's
Science Center in Thousand Oaks, Calif., has the responsibility for
developing the materials science experiments and for analyzing their
The Indium Corporation of America of Utica, New York is
collaborating with the Science Center in the development and analysis
of the experiments and is providing the three Indium samples to be
processed on the FEA-2 Mission. NASA will provide standard Space
Shuttle flight services under the JEA.
Floating Zone Crystal Growth and Purification
The floating zone process involves an annular heater that melts a
length of sample material and them moves along the sample. As the
heater moves (translates), more and more of the polycrystalline
material in front of it melts. The molten material behind the heater
will cool and resolidify.
The presence of a "seed" crystal at the initial solidification
interface, will establish the crytallographic lattice structure and
orientation of the single crystal that results. Impurities in the
polycrystalline material will tend to stay in the melt as it passes
along the sample and will be deposited at the end when the heater is
turned off and the melt finally solidifies.
On the ground, under the influence of gravity, the length of the
melt is dependent upon the density and surface tension of the material
being processed. Many industrially important materials cannot be
successfully processed because of their properties. In the
microgravity environment of spaceflight, the length of the melt is only
limited to the diameter of the sample and is independent of material
Materials of industrial interest include indium antimonide,
cadmium telluride, gallium arsenide and others. Potential applications
for these materials include advanced electronic, electo-optical and
optical devices and high-purity feed stock.
The FEA-2 experiments involve five samples, three of indium with a
melting point of 156 Celsius and two of selenium with a melting point
of 217 Celsius. Each sample will be 1 centimeter in diameter by 19
centimeters long. The heater translation rates and process durations
are given by the table on the next page.
On orbit, the flight crew will prepare the FEA by connecting its
computer and camera. The five experiment samples will be sequentially
installed in the FEA at mission elapsed times of 21.5, 25.9, 30.1, 51.9
and 73.5 hours, respectively, and processed according to their unique
requirements. The experiment parameters (heater power and translation
rate) will be controlled by the operator through the FEA control
Sample behavior, primarily melt zone length, will be observed by
the operator and recorded by the FEA camera. Experiment data (heater
power, heater translation rate, heater position, experiment time, and
various experiment and FEA temperatures) will be formatted, displayed
to the operator and recorded by the computer. The operator will record
mission elapsed time at the start of each experiment as well as
significant orbiter maneuvers during FEA operations.
In general, the experiment process involves installing a sample in
the FEA, positioning the heater at a predesignated point along the
sample, turning on the heater to melt a length of sample (approximately
twice the diameter), starting the heater translation at a fixed rate
(for the last three samples only), and maintaining a constant the melt
zone length by controlling the heater power.
Once the end of the sample is reached, the heater is turned off
and the translation reversed until it reaches the starting end of the
sample. The sample, camera film and computer disk then can be changed
and the next experiment started.
Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA)
The FEA is designed to perform materials processing research in
the microgravity environment of spaceflight. Its design and
operational characteristics are based on actual industrial requirements
and have been coordinated thoroughly with industrial scientists and
NASA materials-processing specialists and Space Shuttle operations
personnel. Convenient, low-cost access to space for basic and applied
research in a variety of product and process technologies is provided
by the FEA.
The FEA is a modular microgravity chemistry and physics laboratory
for use on the Space Shuttle and supports materials processing research
in crystal growth, general liquid chemistry, fluid physics and
thermodynamics. It has the functional capability to heat, cool, mix,
stir or centrifuge experiment samples that can be gaseous, liquid or
solid. Samples can be processed in a variety of containers or in a
semicontainerless floating zone mode. Multiple samples can be
installed, removed or exchanged during a mission through a 14.1 by 10
inch door in the FEA's cover.
Instrumentation can measure sample temperature, pressure,
viscosity, etc. A video or super-8 millimeter movie camera can be used
to record sample behavior. Experiment data can be displayed and
recorded through the use of a portable computer that also is capable of
Interior dimensions of the FEA are approximately 18.6 by 14.5 by
7.4 inches, and it can accommodate approximately 26 pounds of
experiment-unique hardware and subsystems. It mounts in place of a
standard stowage locker in the middeck of the Shuttle crew compartment,
where it is operated by the flight crew. This installation and means
of operation permit the FEA to be flown on most Space Shuttle
Modular design permits the FEA to be easily configured for almost
any experiment. Configurations even can be changed in orbit,
permitting experiments of different types to be performed on a given
Shuttle mission. Optional subsystems can include custom furnace and
oven designs, special sample containers, low-temperature air heaters,
specimen centrifuge, special instrumentation, and other systems
specified by the user. Up to 100 watts of 120 volt, 400-hertz power is
available from the Shuttle orbiter for FEA experiments.
Sample Material Heater Rate Duration
1 indium 0 2
2 indium 0 2
3 indium 1.25 16
4 selenium 1.25 16
5 selenium 0.62 16
[This data was mangled (no spaces), so I may have botched the formatting.-PEY]
AIR FORCE MAUI OPTICAL SITE CALIBRATION TEST
The Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) tests allow ground- based
electro-optical sensors located on Mt. Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, to
collect imagery and signature data of the orbiter during cooperative
overflights. The scientific observations made of the orbiter, while
performing reaction control system thruster firings, water dumps or
payload bay light activation, are used to support calibration of the
AMOS sensors and the validation of spacecraft contamination models.
The AMOS tests have no payload-unique flight hardware and only require
that the orbiter be in predefined attitude operations and lighting
The AMOS facility was developed by the Air Force Systems Command
(AFSC) through its Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss Air Force
Base, N.Y., and is administered and operated by the AVCO Everett
Research Laboratory in Maui. The principal investigator for the AMOS
tests on the Space Shuttle is from AFSC's Air Force Geophysics
Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass. A co-principal investigator
is from AVCO.
Flight planning and mission support activities for the AMOS test
opportunities are provided by a detachment of AFSC's Space Systems
Division at Johnson Space Center. Flight operations are conducted at
JSC Mission Control Center in coordination with the AMOS facilities
located in Hawaii.
PAYLOAD AND VEHICLE WEIGHTS
Vehicle/Payload Weight (Pounds)
Orbiter Atlantis (Empty) 171,600
IUS Support Equipment 204
Orbiter and Cargo at SRB Ignition 217,513
Total Vehicle at SRB Ignition 4,525,116
Orbiter Landing Weight 192,313
SPACEFLIGHT TRACKING AND DATA NETWORK
Primary communications for most activities on STS-30 will be
conducted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System
(TDRSS). However, the NASA Spaceflight Tracking and Data Relay Network
of ground stations will continue to play a role in the mission. The
stations, along with the NASA Communications Network, at Goddard Space
Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., will serve as backups for
communications with Space Shuttle Atlantis should a problem develop in
the satellite communications.
Ground tracking facilities serve as focal points during the launch
and ascent of the Shuttle from Kennedy Space Center, Fla. For the
first minute and 20 seconds, all voice, telemetry and other
communications from the Shuttle are relayed to the mission managers at
Kennedy and at Johnson Space Center, Houston, by the Merritt Island
At 1 minute, 20 seconds, the communications are picked up from the
Shuttle and relayed to KSC and JSC from the Ponce de Leon facility, 30
miles north of the launch pad. This facility provides the
communications for 70 seconds during a critical period when exhaust
energy from the solid rocket motors "blocks out" the Merritt Island
The Merritt Island facility resumes communications to and from the
Shuttle after those 70 seconds and maintains them until 6 minutes, 30
seconds after launch when communications are "switched over" to
Bermuda. Bermuda then provides the communications until 11 minutes
after liftoff. At that time, TDRS-East acquires the satellite.
With the completion of the TDRS constellation of three satellites
on mission STS-29 in March, plans are underway to phase out five of the
ground stations. They are Guam, after June 30, 1989; Ascension Island,
Hawaii and Santiago, Chile, after Sept. 30, 1989; and Dakar, Senegal,
on Dec. 30, 1990. After these stations are closed, the Merritt Island,
Ponce de Leon, Bermuda and Wallops Island, Va., stations will remain in
DAVID M. WALKER, 44, captain, USN, is mission commander. Although
born in Columbus, Ga., he considers Eustis, Fla., his hometown. Walker
is a member of the astronaut class of 1978.
Walker was pilot of STS-51A, launched Nov. 8, 1984, marking the
second flight of the orbiter Discovery. During the mission, the crew
deployed two satellites and, in the first space salvage mission in
history, also retrieved and returned to Earth the Palapa B-2 and Westar
His assignments also have included: Astronaut Office safety
officer; deputy chief of Aircraft Operations; STS-1 chase pilot;
software verification at the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory
(SAIL); and assistant to the director, Flight Crew Operations. He has
logged 192 hours in space.
Walker earned a B.S. degree from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1966.
He received flight training from the Naval Aviation Training Command at
bases in Florida, Mississippi and Texas. He completed two combat
cruises in Southeast Asia as a fighter pilot, flying F-4 Phantoms
aboard the carriers USS Enterprise and USS America.
In January 1972, Walker became an experimental and engineering
test pilot in the flight test division at the Naval Air Test Center,
Patuxent River, Md. Walker has logged more than 5,000 hours flying
time, 4,500 in jet aircraft.
RONALD J. GRABE, 43, colonel, USAF, is pilot. He was born in New
York, N.Y., and is a member of the astronaut class of 1981. Grabe was
pilot for STS-51J, the second Space Shuttle Department of Defense
mission, launched Oct. 3, 1985, on the orbiter Atlantis' maiden
voyage. He has logged 98 hours in space.
Grabe earned a B.S. degree in engineering science from the U.S.
Air Force Academy in 1966 and studied aeronautics as a Fulbright
Scholar at the Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, West Germany, in
Following his studies in West Germany, Grabe returned to the
United States to complete pilot training at Randolph Air Force Base,
Texas. In 1969, he was assigned as an F-100 pilot with the 3rd
Tactical Fighter Wing at Bien Hoa Air Base, Republic of Vietnam, where
he flew 200 combat missions.
Grabe graduated from the USAF Test Pilot School in 1975 and was
assigned to the Air Force Flight Test Center as a test pilot for the
A-7 and F-111. He later served as an exchange test pilot with the
Royal Air Force at Boscombe Down, United Kingdom, from 1976 at Edwards
Air Force Base, Calif., when advised of his selection by NASA. Grabe
has logged more than 4,000 hours flying time.
NORMAN E. THAGARD, M.D., 45, is mission specialist 1 (MS-1).
Although born in Marianna, Fla., Thagard considers Jacksonville, Fla.,
his hometown. He is a member of the astronaut class of 1978.
Thagard was a mission specialist on STS-7, launched June 8, 1983.
It was the second flight for the orbiter Challenger and the first
mission with a five-person crew. During the mission, the STS-7 crew
operated the Canadian-built remote manipulator system arm to perform
the first deployment and retrieval exercise with the Shuttle Pallet
Satellite (SPAS-01); conducted the first formation flying of the
orbiter with a free-flying satellite (SPAS-01); and carried and
operated the first U.S./German cooperative materials science payload.
During the flight, Thagard conducted various medical tests and
collected data on physiological changes associated with astronaut
adaptation to space.
Thagard also served as a mission specialist on STS-51B, the
Spacelab-3 science mission, launched April 29, 1985, aboard
Challenger. Duties on orbit included satellite deployment operation
with the NUSAT satellite and care for the 24 rodents and two squirrel
monkeys contained in the Research Animal Holding Facility.
Thagard earned B.S. and M.S. degrees in engineering science from
Florida State Univeristy before earning an M.D. degree from the
University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in 1977.
After entering active duty with the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve,
Thagard achieved the rank of captain in 1967 and a year later was
designated a naval aviator assigned to fly F-4s at Marine Corps Air
Station, Beaufort, S.C. He flew 163 combat missions in Vietnam in 1969
and 1970. Thagard resumed his academic studies in 1971, pursuing
additional studies in electrical engineering and a degree in medicine.
Thagard is a pilot and has logged over 2,200 hours flying time,
the majority in jet aircraft.
MARY L. CLEAVE, Ph.D., 42, is mission specialist 2 (MS-2). Cleave
was born in Southampton, N.Y. She is a member of the astronaut class
Cleave was a mission specialist on STS-61B which was launched at
night, Nov. 26, 1985. During the mission, the crew deployed
communications satellites and conducted two 6-hour spacewalks to
demonstrate Space Station construction techniques with the EASE/ACCESS
experiments. This was the heaviest payload weight a Space Shuttle had
carried to orbit. Cleave also has worked as a capsule communicator
(capcom) in the Mission Control Center on five Space Shuttle flights.
Cleave has logged 165 hours in space.
Cleave earned a B.S. degree in biological sciences from Colorado
State University in 1969. She earned an M.S. degree in microbial
ecology and a Ph.D. in civil and environmental engineering from Utah
State University in 1975 and 1979, respectively.
Cleave held graduate research, research phycologist and research
engineer assignments in the Ecology Center and the Utah Water Research
Laboratory at Utah State University from 1971 to 1980.
MARK C. LEE, 36, major, USAF, is mission specialist 3 (MS-3).
This will be his first space flight. Born in Viroqua, Wis., he is a
member of the astronaut class of 1984.
Lee has participated in the planning and simulation of several
extravehicular activity missions and has served as the support
crewmember for mission STS-51I, Leasat retrieval and repair. He also
has served as a capcom.
Lee earned a B.S. degree in civil engineering from the U.S. Air
Force Academy in 1974 and a M.S. degree in mechanical engineering from
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1980.
Following pilot training at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas, Lee
spent 2 1/2 years at Okinawa Air Base, Japan, in the 25th Tactical
Fighter Squadron flying F-4s. In 1982, he served as the 388TFW deputy
commander for operations, executive officer and flight commander in the
4th Tactical Fighter Squadron at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, until his
selection as an astronaut candidate. Lee has logged 2,000 hours flying
time, primarily in the T-38, F-4 and F-16 aircraft.
NASA PROGRAM MANAGEMENT
Dale D. Myers
RADM Richard H. Truly
Associate Administrator for Space Flight
George W. S. Abbey
Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Flight
Arnold D. Aldrich
Director, National Space Transportation Program
Richard H. Kohrs
Deputy Director, NSTS Program (located at Johnson Space Center)
Robert L. Crippen
Deputy Director, NSTS Operations (located at Kennedy Space Center)
David L. Winterhalter
Director, Systems Engineering and Analyses
Gary E. Krier
Director, Operations Utilization
Joseph B. Mahon
Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Flight (Flight Systems)
Charles R. Gunn
Director, Unmanned Launch Vehicles and Upper Stages
George A. Rodney
Associate Administrator for Safety, Reliability, Maintainability and
Dr. Lennard A. Fisk
Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications
Samuel W. Keller
Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications
Dr. Geoffrey A. Briggs
Director, Solar System Exploration Division
Dr. William L. Piotrowski
Manager, Magellan Program
Dr. Joseph Boyce
Magellan Program Scientist
Johnson Space Center
Paul J. Weitz
Richard A. Colonna
Manager, Orbiter and GFE Projects
Donald R. Puddy
Director, Flight Crew Operations
Eugene F. Kranz
Director, Mission Operations
Henry O. Pohl
Charles S. Harlan
Director, Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance
Kennedy Space Center
Forrest A. McCartney
Thomas E. Utsman
Jay F. Honeycutt
Director, Shuttle Management
Robert B. Sieck
George T. Sasseen
Shuttle Engineering Director
Conrad G. Nagel
Atlantis Flow Director
James A. Thomas
Director, Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance
John T. Conway
Director, Payload Management and Operations
Marshall Space Flight Center
James R. Thompson Jr.
Thomas J. Lee
William R. Marshall
Manager, Shuttle Projects Office
Dr. J. Wayne Littles
Director, Science and Engineering
Alexander A. McCool
Director, Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance
Gerald W. Smith
Manager, Solid Rocket Booster Project
Joseph A. Lombardo
Manager, Space Shuttle Main
Jerry W. Smelser
Acting Manager, External Tank Project
Stennis Space Center
Bay St. Louis, Miss.
Roy S. Estess
William F. Taylor
J. Harry Guin
Director, Propulsion Test Operations
Edward L. Tilton III
Director, Science and Technology Laboratory
John L. Gasery Jr.
Chief, Safety/Quality Assurance
and Occupational Health
Ames Research Center
Mountain View, Calif.
Dr. William F. Ballhaus Jr.
Dr. Dale L. Compton
Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility
Martin A. Knutson
Theodore G. Ayers
Deputy Site Manager
Thomas C. McMurtry
Chief, Research Aircraft Operations Division
Larry C. Barnett
Chief, Shuttle Support Office
Goddard Space Flight Center
Dr. John W. Townsend
Gerald W. Longanecker
Director, Flight Projects
Robert E. Spearing
Director, Operations and Data Systems
Daniel A. Spintman
Chief, Networks Division
Gary A. Morse
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Dr. Lew Allen
Dr. Peter T. Lyman
John H. Gerpheide
Manager, Magellan Project
Anthony J. Spear
Deputy Manager, Magellan Project
Dr. Saterios Sam Dallas
Manager, Science and Mission Design,
Dr. R. Steven Sanders
Magellan Project Scientist
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