Info about shuttle flight 51- F
Challenger was to return to orbit on July 12, 1985, with its launch
marking the 19th Space Shuttle mission. A launch attempt on July 12
was stopped at the T-3 second mark -- after main engine ignition had
occurred -- because of a failed coolant valve in the number two
engine and all three engines were shut down. The launch was delayed
until July 29, when liftoff occurred at 5 p.m. EDT, after a 1-hour,
37-minute delay because of problems with the orbiter.
Although liftoff was normal, at 5 minutes, 45 seconds after launch,
the number one main engine shutdown prematurely and an abort-to-orbit
was declared. An orbit of 124 by 165 mile was achieved, and later
raised to an altitude of about 196 mile by a series of Orbital
Maneuvering System burns.
Despite this initial problem, the mission, a third Spacelab effort
officially called Spacelab-2, was successful. (Spacelab-3 was flown
out of sequence ahead of Spacelab-2 on STS 51-B as an operational
mission, Spacelab-2 being the last Shuttle/Spacelab verification
The seven-man crew included Charles G. Fullerton, commander; Roy D.
Bridges, pilot; three mission specialists F. Story Musgrave, Anthony
W. England and Karl G. Henize; and two payload specialists Loren W.
Acton of Lockheed Corp., and John-David Bartoe from the Naval
The Spacelab-2 payload consisted of an igloo and three pallets in
the payload bay, containing scientific instruments dedicated to life
sciences, plasma physics, astronomy, high-energy astrophysics, solar
physics, atmospheric physics and technology research.
A major objective of the mission was to verify the performance of
the Spacelab systems with the orbiter as well as to measure the
environment created by the vehicle in space.
The flight marked the first time ESA Instrument Pointing System
(IPS) was tested in orbit. This unique experiment pointing
instrument was designed with an accuracy of one arc second.
Initially, some problems were experienced when it was commanded to
track the Sun. A series of software fixes were made and the problem
was corrected. The flight crew and the experts on the ground in the
Marshall POCC worked closely together and much valuable scientific
data was acquired.
Inside the pressurized orbiter cabin four other experiments were
carried out. These included two dealing with Vitamin D metabolites
and bone demineralization which involved, among other things, taking
physiological measurements of crew members. A third experiment dealt
with determining the effect of microgravity on lignification in
plants. Finally, the fourth cabin experiment, which was added late
in planning for the mission, was concerned with protein crystal
growth. All four experiments were declared successful.
The mission ended with Challenger landing at Edwards AFB, Calif., at
12:45 p.m. PDT, Aug. 6, on orbit 127. Mission duration was 7 days,
22 hours, 45 minutes, 26 seconds.
NEW SPACELAB CONFIGURATION TESTED ABOARD CHALLENGER
Space Shuttle mission 51-F/Spacelab 2 marks the first flight of an
igloo-pallet configuration and a new Instrument Pointing System. The mission
is the second verification test flight and the third dedicated mission for the
space laboratory developed for NASA by the European Space Agency (ESA).
This pallet-only configuration consists of unpressurized platforms
(pallets) in the payload bay which, with the pointing system, turn Spacelab
into a unique orbiting observatory for studying the sun, stars and space
environment. An igloo, a cylindrical shell attached to the first pallet,
houses many of the systems such as computers and data recorders. These systems
previously have been located inside a pressurized laboratory module element
flown on the two earlier dedicated Spacelab missions, but the module is not
required for this flight.
Spacelab 2 is scheduled for liftoff from Launch Complex 39, Pad A, at
Kennedy Space Center, Fla., on July 12, 1985, at 4:30 p.m. EDT. During the
7-day mission, Spacelab operates in the payload bay of the orbiter Challenger,
circling Earth at a maximum altitude of 242 statute miles with an orbital
inclination of 49.5 degrees. Spacelab 2 is flying shortly after Spacelab 3
because of a delay in completing the Instrument Pointing System.
Since this is the first pallet-only Spacelab flight, primary mission
objectives are to verify the Spacelab systems and to determine the interface
capability of Spacelab and the orbiter.
A secondary, but important objective, is to obtain scientific and
technology data to demonstrate Spacelab's capability to conduct investigations
in a number of disciplines on a single mission. Thirteen investigations in
seven scientific disciplines were chosen to exercise Spacelab's capabilities to
the fullest and, at the same time, collect valuable research data.
The Spacelab 2 mission schedule is busy with research activities, and once
again payload crew members perform scientific investigations continuously
around the clock during two 12-hour shifts. Two of the scientists who
developed Spacelab 2 solar observation experiments are payload specialists and
will conduct research during the mission. Dr. Loren Acton, a solar physicist
from Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory in California, and Dr. John-David
Bartoe, a solar physicist from the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in
Washington, D.C., are the third pair of career scientists to work aboard
Scientific research also is performed by two NASA mission specialists:
Dr. Anthony England, a geophysicist specializing in Earth and planetary
sciences, and Dr. Karl Henize, an astronomer.
Commander of the seven-member crew is C. Gordon Fullerton, a veteran NASA
astronaut who served as pilot on the third Shuttle mission. Assisting him are
pilot Roy D. Bridges Jr., on his first Shuttle flight, and an experienced NASA
scientist-astronaut Dr. Story Musgrave, who served as mission specialist on the
sixth Shuttle flight.
NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., is responsible for
overall management of the Spacelab 2 mission. This involves overseeing all
aspects of the mission including experiment selection, payload crew training,
mission planning and realtime mission support. The Spacelab 2 mission manager,
Roy C. Lester of Marshall, works with members of the NASA centers to ensure
mission success. Mission scientist Dr. Eugene W. Urban of Marshall coordinates
the activities of the mission's science participants with the management team.
ESA also continues to work cooperatively with the Marshall management team
and other NASA centers. ESA designed, developed and funded Spacelab to serve
as part of America's Space Transportation System. Spacelab includes various
standardized parts, such as habitable modules, pallets and a pointing system,
that can be assembled to meet the needs of a particular mission. The
habitable module and several other Spacelab components, including single
pallets, have already been used successfully to perform research in various
The Spacelab 2 configuration consists of three pallets, an igloo and a
pointing system. Each U-shaped pallet is 10 feet long and 13 ft. wide and is
covered with aluminum honeycomb panels. The pallets mount directly to the
orbiter and experiments are attached to the pallets via different interfaces.
This mission will verify that the pallet configuration, augmented by the igloo
and the pointing system, is satisfactory for observations and research.
Thirteen experiment teams, 11 from the United States and two from the
United Kingdom, are directing investigations in solar physics, atmospheric
physics, plasma physics, infrared astronomy, high energy astrophysics,
technology research and life sciences. Ten of these experiments require direct
exposure to space and are mounted on the pallets and in a special support
structure inside the payload bay. One experiment conducted from the ground
uses the Shuttle as a research tool. Two life sciences experiments are located
in middeck lockers.
Another new Spacelab component, the ESA-developed Instrument Pointing
System, is being tested during its inaugural flight. On the first pallet,
three solar instruments and one atmospheric instrument are attached to the
pointing system, which can aim them more accurately than the Shuttle alone and
keep them fixed on targets as the Shuttle moves. The pointing system has a
relative accuracy of 2 arc seconds (one eighteen hundredth of a degree), which
means it can remain stably pointed at an object the size of a quarter from a
distance of one and a half miles.
This mission also uses a different method for commanding and monitoring
Spacelab instruments. On two previous missions, Spacelab 1 and 3, the payload
crew operated instruments from inside the habitable module. This payload crew
works inside the orbiter aft flight deck, located directly behind the cockpit.
Equipment, such as the Spacelab computer consoles, television monitors,
controls for the Instrument Pointing System, data collection and various
experiments are mounted along panels in the U-shaped work area.
Many of the commands are routed through the igloo, another Spacelab
component on its maiden flight. The igloo is a pressurized container that
houses Spacelab subsystems for computer operations, data recording and
transmission and thermal control. On previous Spacelab flights, these systems
have also been located inside the habitable module. The igloo, which has a
volume of about 53 cubic ft. and weighs about 1,408 pounds when fully
equipped, is mounted to the front frame of the first pallet.
Verification tests of Spacelab systems and subsystems begin at launch and
continue throughout the mission. Verification flight instruments measure such
parameters as temperature and vibration levels in the payload bay. On the
first day of flight, a special set of tests is performed on the Instrument
Pointing System; it is unstowed and aimed at various solar viewing targets to
verify its pointing capability and accuracy.
By approximately 15 hours into the mission, all of the Spacelab 2 science
instruments are activated. Many begin making observations immediately.
On the third flight day, the crew uses the Remote Manipulator System to
deploy a small subsatellite for studies of the surrounding space environment.
The Shuttle makes several complex maneuvers around the satellite at a distance
of about a quarter mile and then the satellite is retrieved and returned to the
vicinity of the payload bay to continue making other measurements.
This is the third NASA mission in which scientists who developed Spacelab
experiments participate actively in guiding the mission. These scientists,
called principal investigators, helped train and select the payload specialists
and worked closely with the management team to plan the mission. During the
flight, they work in the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's
Johnson Space Center in Houston.
Throughout the mission, all Spacelab 2 science operations are managed from
the POCC at Johnson. Members of the Marshall mission management cadre, along
with investigator teams who developed the Spacelab 2 experiments, monitor,
direct and control experiment operations from the ground control center.
During the mission, Spacelab systems are also carefully monitored 24 hours a
day from the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) in Huntsville, Ala.
Both POCC and HOSC personnel work closely with the Johnson Mission Control
Center (MCC) staff, which is responsible for controlling the orbiter Challenger
and basic Spacelab systems. The MCC and the POCC are located in the same
The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) handles most of the
communications and data transmissions between the spacecraft and the ground.
NASA's worldwide Ground Spacecraft Tracking and Data Network, operated by the
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., is used when TDRSS coverage is not
available. A special Spacelab Data Processing Facility at Goddard receives the
steady flow of scientific and engineering data from Spacelab.
After 7 days of around-the-clock verification tests and science
operations, Challenger is scheduled to land on July 19 at Edwards Air Force
Base in California. Reentry will begin with the firing of the Shuttle's
Orbital Maneuvering System engines as the orbiter makes its 110th revolution of
the Earth. Landing is set for 3:42 p.m. EDT, on Runway 17.
SHUTTLE MISSION 51-F -- QUICK LOOK FACTS
Crew: Charles G. Fullerton, Commander
Roy D. Bridges Jr., Pilot
Karl G. Henize, Mission Specialist (MS-1)
Anthony W. England, Mission Specialist (MS-2)
F. Story Musgrave, Mission Specialist (MS-3)
Loren W. Acton, Payload Specialist (PS-1)
John-David F. Bartoe, Payload Specialist (PS-2)
Orbiter: Challenger (OV-099)
Launch Site: Pad 39-A, Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
Launch Dates/Times: July 12, 4:30 p.m. EDT
Window: 2 hours
Orbital Inclination: 49.5 degrees
Orbit: Insert into 122 by 214 s.mi. (direct insertion) orbit, then maneuver
to approximately 238 s.mi. circular with 7 OMS maneuvers, which also
are required to meet the Plasma Depletion Experiment requirements for
a ground track that passes over specific ground sites.
Mission Duration: 6 days, 23 hours, 12 minutes
Orbits: 109 full orbits; land on orbit 110
Landing Date/Time: July 19, 3:42 p.m. EDT
Primary Landing Site: Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., Runway 17
Weather Alternate: Kennedy Space Center, Fla., Runway 15
Transatlantic Landing: Zaragoza, Spain
Abort-Once-Around: Space Harbor, White Sands, N.M.
Payload: Spacelab 2
(see Spacelab 2 Investigations for experiments)
Protein Crystal Growth
Plant Growth Unit (PGU)
Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)
Carbonated Beverage Dispenser Evaluation (CBDE)
Mission To verify the ESA-built Spacelab pallet configur-
Objectives: ation and conduct application, science, and technology
investigations that require direct exposure to space above
Earth's atmosphere and accurate pointing at the sun and other
Flight The 51-F mission timeline calls for rotating shifts
Synopsis: Two teams, Blue and Red, work alternating shifts of 11 to
six hours. The Red team comprises the PLT, MS1 and PS1; the
Blue team, MS2, MS3 and PS2. The commander works either
shift as needed.
Launch/Entry The commander and pilot will occupy their normal Seating: flight
deck seats. MS2 (Musgrave) will sit on the flight deck behind
and between the commander and}pilot. MS1 (Henize) will sit on
the flight deck to the right of MS2. MS3 (England) and the
payload specialists will sit on the middeck.
Contingency EVA Crewmen: Story Musgrave, Tony England
51-F TRAJECTORY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS
Burn Post Burn
TIG/MET Duration Delta V Apogee/Perigee
Event (D:H:M) Min-Sec (FPS) (s.mi.-approx.)
Insertion TIG 0:00:39 1.45 160.2
122 x 214
PDP Experiment -- 7 OMS Burns
Millstone, Mass. 0:06:25 0:33 52.4
147 x 218
Arecibo, Puerto Rico 0:08:04 0:47 75.4
88 x 218
Hobart, Australia 0:22:04 0:47 76.3
214 x 238
Millstone, Mass. 1:00:21 0:13 22.0
222 x 237
Roberval, Canada 1:01:58 0:15 12.5
226 x 238
Roberval, Canada 1:01:59 0:15 12.5
229 x 237
Arecibo, Puerto Rico 1:21:40 0:12 20.4
237 x 239
PDP release 2:03:50
237 x 239
PDP retrieval 2:11:02
237 x 239
PDP experiment concluded
Kwajalein, Atoll 6:14:24 0:14 23.0
224 x 238
Deorbit TIG 6:22:09 4:09 430.7
19 x 207
Entry interface 6:22:42
Landing, Edwards AFB 6:23:12
SUMMARY OF ORBITER AND SCIENCE ACTIVITIES
Open payload bay doors
Activate Spacelab systems
Activate payload experiments
Deploy, align and check the Instrument Pointing System (IPS);
perform initial solar observations
Fire Shuttle engines in first 3 OMS burns as part of plasma depletion
Draw blood for vitamin D metabolite experiment
Maneuver to gravity gradient attitude for superfluid helium experiment
operations; when complete, re-orient orbiter for PDP operations
Fire Shuttle engines in next 3 OMS burns
Study the space environment with the Plasma Diagnostics Package
(PDP) extended on the RMS
Operate PDP and the Vehicle Charging and Potential (VCAP)
experiment to investigate plasma activity
Maneuver again to gravity gradient attitude for superfluid
helium experiment operations
Select and observe new solar viewing targets
Begin collecting astrophysical data with the X-ray telescope,
infrared telescope and cosmic ray detector
Release PDP satellite using RMS; maneuver orbiter in a "fly-
around" as PDP studies plasma away from the Shuttle; retrieve the satellite
with the arm and return it to the vicinity of the payload bay for continued
Operate PDP and VCAP jointly during fly-around
Select and observe new solar targets
Continue astronomical observations
Concentrate on solar observations with more than 15 hours of
Study Shuttle glow with first joint operations of PDP and the
infrared telescope (IRT)
Operate PDP and IRT jointly to study Shuttle glow
Continue experiment operations in all disciplines
Collect blood for vitamin D metabolite investigation
Sample gas and monitor temperatures in the Plant Growth Unit (PGU)
Collect final blood samples
Make final solar observations; stow IPS and prepare for landing Deactivate
Deactivate Spacelab 2 systems
Fire engines in final OMS burn for plasma depletion experiment Close payload
Landing at Edwards AFB, Calif., Runway 17
SPACELAB 2 CONFIGURATION
Spacelab 2 is composed of three pallets holding experiments and one
experiment mounted in a support structure at the aft end of the payload bay.
The first pallet holds the Instrument Pointing System; on it are experiments in
solar physics and atmospheric physics. The igloo holding Spacelab subsystems
is attached to the forward end of this pallet. The other two pallets are
connected to form a train, containing experiments in atmospheric physics,
plasma physics, high-energy astrophysics, infrared astronomy and technology
research. The cosmic ray experiment is located on a support structure behind
the third pallet. The two life sciences experiments are located in orbiter
Spacelab 2 Configuration (Forward to Aft):
Igloo (attached by struts to Pallet #1)
IPS (Instrument Pointing System)
SOUP (Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter)
CHASE (Coronal Helium Abundance Spacelab Experiment)
HRTS (High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph)
SUSIM (Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor) VCAP (Vehicle Charging
and Potential Experiment) electron generator
VCAP (Spherical Probe and Charge and Current Probe)
XRT (X-Ray Telescope)
PDP (Plasma Diagnostics Package)
IRT (Infrared Telescope)
SFHE (Superfluid Helium Experiment)
Special Support Structure:
CRN (Cosmic Ray Nuclei experiment)
Blood collection kit
PGU (Plant Growth Unit)
Middeck Layout (Plant growth, Vitamin D)
SPACELAB 2: THE HARDWARE
The pallet cross-section is U-shaped providing hard points for mounting
heavy experiments and a large panel surface area to accommodate lighter payload
elements. Pallet segments are 3 m long and 4 m wide and can be flown
independently, or interconnected in a pallet "train." The pallet train cannot
consist of more than three segments, whereas the independent configurations
may consist of one to five pallet segments. Spaced pallet segments are
connected via a utility support structure.
In pallet-only configurations, subsystem equipment necessary for the
operation of Spacelab is located in the "igloo," which is mounted on the front
frame of the first pallet segment.
Twenty-four inner and 24 outer panels, made of aluminum alloy honeycomb,
cover the frame. The inner panels are equipped with threaded inserts so that
payload and subsystem equipment can be attached. Each panel can support a
uniformly distributed load up to 50 kilograms per square meter.
Twenty-four standard hardpoints made of chromium-plated titanium casting
are provided for payloads which exceed the acceptable loading of the inner
Payloads will normally fit within the pallet, but it is possible to carry
special payloads which overhang the sides if the necessary arrangement can be
made to fix them.
The Igloo -- The Unmanned Service Module for Pallet-Only Spacelab Missions
A main part of the modular Spacelab system is a pressurized automatic
supply module, the Igloo, for pallet-only flight configurations. Normally
Spacelab subsystem equipment is housed in the core segment of the module. When
the module is not being flown, it is, of course, necessary to house the
subsystems elsewhere. As the subsystems are designed for a pressurized
environment, the Igloo structure has been developed as a pressurized
compartment in which Spacelab subsystem equipment can be mounted in a dry air
environment at normal earth atmospheric pressure. The Igloo is designed for
7-day missions, but could, if necessary, be used for missions up to 30 days.
The Igloo is always attached vertically to the forward end frame of the
first pallet in the pallet-only mode.
The primary structure is a cylindrical, locally stiffened shell, made of
aluminum alloy forged rings, and closed at one end. The other end has a
mounting flange for the cover. A seal is inserted when the two structures are
joined together mechanically to formal a pressure-tight assembly.
Externally the primary structure has fittings for the structure by which
it is fastened to the pallet, for handling and transportation on the ground and
for thermal control insulation. Two feedthrough plates accommodate utility
lines and a pressure relief valve. Internally there are mounting facilities
for sub system equipment and the Igloo secondary structure. The weight of an
equipped Igloo is approximately 665 kg, and 2.2 cubic meters is available for
The cover is also a cylindrical shell, made of welded aluminum and closed
at one end. Adaptors for the positive relief valve and the burst disc are on
top of the cover. The cover can be removed to allow full access to the
Subsystem equipment is mounted on the secondary structure which also acts
as a guide for the removal or replacement of the cover. The secondary
structure is hinge-fastened to the primary structure allowing access to the
bottom of the secondary structure and to equipment mounted within the primary
The Igloo is mounted on the pallet by a cross beam and two adjustable link
fittings. A set of Spacelab subsystem equipment, similar to the set integrated
in the module, is installed within the Igloo in the pallet-only configuration.
The following equipment (basic and mission dependent) is located in the
* Three computers (subsystem, experiment and back-up)
* Two Input/Output units (subsystem and experiment)
* One mass memory
* Two subsystem Remote Acquisition Units
* Nine interconnecting stations
* One emergency box
* One power control box
* One subsystem power distribution box
* One remote amplifier and advisory box
* One high-rate multiplexer
* Freon cooling loop components
In addition to the Igloo the following major subsystem equipment also is
mounted to the front frame of the first pallet segment:
* One subsystem 400 Hz inverter
* One experiment 400 Hz inverter
* Freon cooling loop components
Thermal control of the 400 Hz inverters is also achieved by cold plates
connected to the pallet freon cooling loop.
Instrument Pointing System
The Instrument Pointing System (IPS) is a versatile pointing system for
use on the orbiter to provide precision orientation capability to a scientific
experiment requiring essentially better pointing accuracy and stability than
that provided by the orbiter.
With its three-axis gimbal system it can orient payloads of up to 2,000 kg
within an accuracy of 1 arc sec.
The IPS development under ESA contract was completed in 1984.
The IPS is a Spacelab subsystem taking full advantage of the system
resources and services without using any of the payload-dedicated support.
Located in a standard Spacelab pallet, it comprises a three-axis gimbal system
end-mounted to the payload, the payload clamp assembly to support the payload
during ground operations and load-critical flight phases, and the control
electronics to provide the full operational flexibility during all mission
phases and to execute the pointing control operation via the Spacelab subsystem
The dimensions of the payload are only restricted by the width of the
pallet and the available length of the pallet train or cargo bay.
Accommodation of different payload dimensions can be performed by variation of
the clamp unit locations and by adaptation of the gimbal center or rotation.
The three identical drive units consist of a shaft supported by precision
ball bearings within a titanium housing and controlled by two redundant
brushless torque and resolver motors.
The front end of the roll drive unit is connected to the equipment
platform, a honeycomb disk of 2 m diameter, which carries subsystems dedicated
to electronics and a redundant mechanism which provides, in orbit, the rigid
attachment between the payload and the gimbal system (which decouples both
during all load generating flight and ground phases).
The IPS is thermally controlled by application of an active heating system
on the critical components and a combination of insulated and radiating areas
to control the heat exchange to its environment during all critical hot and
cold operations. During launch and landing phases the payload will be
supported by three attachment flanges with the payload clamp assembly. For
on-orbit stowage the payload attachment flanges will be shifted by the pay load
gimbal separation mechanism on the equipment platform into three payload clamp
VERIFICATION FLIGHT TESTS
The primary objective of the Spacelab 2 mission is to test Spacelab
systems and subsystems. The Spacelab Verification Flight Test (VFT) Program
was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and will be implemented by
the Johnson Space Center.
The first verification tests were performed during the Spacelab 1 mission
in 1983, and the systems performed exceptionally well. While Spacelab 1
consisted of a habitable module and one pallet, Spacelab 2 uses a new
configuration made up of an igloo, three pallets, the Instrument Pointing
System and a special sup port structure. The verification program carried out
on 51-F/ Spacelab 2 is designed to test the performance capabilities of these
new components and to verify the compatibility of Spacelab with the orbiter and
the scientific payload.
A set of special equipment, called Verification Flight Instrumentation
(VFI), along with standard orbiter and Spacelab operational instruments, is
used to gather data on Spacelab's performance during the mission. VFI sensors
situated on Spacelab pallets and in the orbiter provide information on how well
Space lab itself responds to the demands of flight. Special tests involving
the Spacelab subsystems and one experiment are conducted during the flight.
Additional data are gleaned as the ambitious schedule of experiment operations
The following is a description by category of the specific VFT objectives
for 51-F/Spacelab 2:
Environmental Control Subsystem -- Tests are conducted to verify that the
passive thermal control subsystem maintains the Spacelab structural elements
within specified temperature limits, meets the specified heat leak requirements
and, in conjunction with the active thermal control system, meets specified
equipment temperature limits. Additional tests are conducted to verify that
the active thermal control subsystem is capable of controlling the igloo
atmosphere and equipment temperatures.
Structures Subsystem -- Spacelab structures are monitored during ascent,
on-orbit operations, descent and landing. To verify load criteria, sensors
monitor the response of the pallets and igloo to low frequency vibration during
ascent and descent. These sensors also gather data to verify Spacelab's random
vibration and acoustic design and test criteria during ascent; the data also
define mission load levels to verify mathematical models and predict service
life. These tests also will prove that the system used to attach Spacelab to
the orbiter is reacting to loads as predicted.
Command and Data Management Subsystem -- Tests are designed to demonstrate
the satisfactory integrated operation and performance of the Command and Data
Management Subsystem (CDMS) and associated equipment and software in an orbital
flight environment. The communications link between Spacelab and the Tracking
and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) is checked as a function of the
mission operations. The performance of all operating displays and controls,
including the effect of all interior lighting and any sunlight/shadow effects,
is also tracked.
Environment -- Tests have been designed to compare the radiation
environment actually experienced to the specified and predicted levels of
radiation; to determine if the radiation protection offered in the film storage
areas is adequate; and to provide data on radiation components for which no
predictive calculations are available and which are likely to be significant
for Spacelab users.
Electrical Power Distribution Subsystem -- This aspect of the VFT is
designed to verify the Electrical Power Distribution Sub system performance
characteristics by operating all power distribution, conditioning and
conversion devices at minimum and maximum mission achievable load levels.
Instrument Pointing System (IPS) -- In conjunction with Experiment #8,
which makes solar measurements in visible light, the IPS is tested. During the
verification run, the IPS undergoes activation, target acquisition, stability
and disturbance effects, free drift tracking, scanning performance, manual
pointing control, response to experiment commands, contingency stowage, normal
stowage and deactivation. All the tests except for the stowage and
deactivation must be completed before the IPS-mounted experiments can begin
Materials -- Tests are conducted to verify the compatibility of Spacelab
exterior materials with the space environment.
AFT FLIGHT DECK
On the two previous Spacelab missions, the crew worked primarily in the
habitable module. For Spacelab 2, the payload crew operates experiments from
the aft flight deck, a small work area directly behind the cockpit.
The aft flight deck of Challenger for the Spacelab 2 mission is
essentially the same configuration as has been flown on previous Space Shuttle
missions, with certain modifications for this particular flight.
For Spacelab 2, a back-up high data rate recorder has been added -- this
one on the port side of the aft flight deck -- as well as a switch panel which
provides necessary functions to operate the Ejectable Plasma Diagnostics
A further Spacelab 2 configuration is a contingency jettison panel for the
Instrument Pointing System.
Facing the aft flight deck, a crew member aboard the Spacelab 2 mission
will find, starting at left, a data display unit, some standard maneuvering
switches, then the IPS contingency panel near the center of the console. To
the right of that are switches to operate the Remote Manipulator System, then
the PDP switch panel, and the second data display unit and the high data rate
recorder on the far right.
The starboard-side data display unit (DDU) is used by the mission
specialist on duty; the port-side DDU, by the payload specialist.
MISSION STATISTICS SUMMARY
Payload and Vehicle Weights
Spacelab at Launch 6,443
IPS at Launch 2,971
Mission Dependent Equipment 695
High Data Rate Recorder 646
Verification Flight Instrumentation 1,528
Spacelab Experiments at Launch 12,264
Mission Peculiar Equipment 2,616
Orbiter Equipment Required by Spacelab 5,982
Total Spacelab 2 Payload 33,145
Total Payload Bay and Middeck Summary 33,263
Orbiter Plus Cargo at Liftoff 252,855
Total Vehicle at Liftoff 4,514,504
Landing Weight 216,900
Spacelab Pallet Dimensions
Length: 10 ft. Width: 13 ft.
Computer Storage and Data Handling
Experiment Computer Memory: 64,000 or 64k (16 bit words) Central Processing
Unit (CPU): 320,000 or 320k instructions/sec Data Handling Orbit/TDRSS: Up to
Onboard Storage Capacity: Up to 32 megabits/second
Spacelab 2 Resource Status
Available Required Margin
Crew Time (hours) 423 279 +144
Electrical (kilowatt hours) 1,150 916 +234
Spacelab was designed, developed, funded and built by the European Space
Agency (ESA) as Europe's contribution to America's Space Transportation
System. Considered one of ESA's most important programs, Spacelab represents a
European investment of almost $1 billion. Nine ESA member states -- Belgium,
Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, the
United Kingdom and one state with associate member status, Austria --
participated in the endeavor. Beginning with the decade of development leading
to Spacelab's first flight in 1983 and continuing today in preparation for
future missions, NASA and ESA work cooperatively to ensure that Spacelab is
utilized successfully as an integral component of the Space Transportation
Preparations for the Spacelab 2 launch began in 1982, when ESA delivered
the three pallets to the Kennedy Space Center Operations and Checkout
Building. These pallets are being used for the first time during the Spacelab
2 mission, but similar pallets have been tested and used successfully to
perform science on previous Shuttle missions. In 1983 the pallets were
equipped with special support equipment needed for the attachment of Spacelab 2
instruments. As scientific instruments arrived at the Kennedy Center, they
were tested and mounted on the three pallets. The Igloo, which contains
Spacelab subsystems for data collection, instrument commanding and thermal
control, was also attached to the first pallet. The cosmic ray experiment was
fixed inside a special support structure, located in the aft end of the payload
In the fall of 1984, after undergoing many tests in Europe, the Instrument
Pointing System arrived at the Kennedy Space Center. Three solar instruments
and one atmospheric instrument were mounted on the pointing system, which was
subsequently mounted on the first pallet.
Initial integration activities were completed in the spring of 1985 with
the successful completion of Mission Sequence Testing designed to verify the
compatibility of experiments with each other and with simulated Spacelab
support subsystems. These tests culminated in May of 1985 in the Closed Loop
Test in which all commandable Spacelab experiments were operated briefly by
remote control from the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at Johnson.
The crew and scientists who developed Spacelab 2 experiments were active
participants in integration and testing. Shortly after the completion of the
Closed Loop Test, the Spacelab and integrated payload was placed in the Cargo
Integration Test Equipment (CITE) stand to verify that it was compatible with
the Shuttle. The CITE duplicates the mechanical and electronic systems of the
On June 8, 1985, the Spacelab and integrated payload was transferred to
the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) and in stalled in the payload bay of the
On June 12, a Spacelab-Orbiter interface test was performed to check all
Shuttle and Spacelab connections. The next day, some Spacelab 2 experiments
were operated again by remote control from the POCC during an end-to-end test.
Commands initiated at JSC consoles were processed through the POCC and Mission
Control Center computers enroute to Spacelab inside the Challenger at
Kennedy. This test was similar to the Closed Loop Test, except TDRSS and
Challenger were included in the loop and a high rate data mode was used.
The launch window for the 51-F/Spacelab 2 mission opens July 12, 1985, at
4:30 p.m. EDT, for 2 hours, closing at 6:30 p.m. EDT. The window was
calculated to satisfy the lighting conditions for particular plasma and
astronomical experiments. The launch window opens at the same time for the
next 5 to 6 days. After that, the moon conditions, which affect several of
the astronomical and plasma observations, become unfavorable. The optimum
launch time is 4 to 5 days before a new moon, when the night sky is darkest,
but a launch can occur a few days beyond that without seriously affecting
LANDING AND POST-LANDING OPERATIONS
Kennedy Space Center is responsible for ground operations of the orbiter
once it has rolled to a stop on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base and for
preparing the Challenger/Spacelab for return to Kennedy Space Center. After
landing, the flight crew begins "safing" vehicle systems. Immediately after
wheel stop, specially garbed technicians will first determine that any residual
hazardous vapors are below significant levels in order for other safing
operations to proceed.
Once the initial safety assessment is made, access vehicles are positioned
around the rear of the orbiter so that lines from the ground purge and cooling
vehicles can be connected to the umbilical panels on the aft end of
Challenger. Freon line connections are completed and coolant begins
circulating through the umbilicals to aid in heat rejection and protect the
orbiter's electronic equipment.
Other lines provide cooled, humidified air to the cargo bay and other
cavities to remove any residual fumes and provide a safe environment inside
A mobile white room is moved into place around the crewhatch once it is
verified that there are no concentrations of toxic gases around the forward
part of the vehicle. The crew is expected to leave Challenger about 30 to 40
minutes after landing. As the crew exits, technicians enter the orbiter to
complete the vehicle safing activity.
Postlanding operations associated with the Spacelab 2 payload include
removal of certain time-critical items, such as plants, blood samples, film and
tape recordings, 1 hour after landing. These items are given to
representatives of the investigator teams at the landing site.
A tow tractor is connected to Challenger and the vehicle is pulled off the
runway at Edwards and positioned inside the Mate/Demate Device. After the
Shuttle has been jacked and leveled in the mate/demate workstands, residual
fuel cell cryogenics are drained and unused pyrotechnic devices are
disconnected prior to the return of the orbiter to Kennedy.
The aerodynamic tail cone is installed over the three main engines, and
the orbiter is bolted on top of the 747 Shuttle carrier aircraft for the ferry
flight back to Florida. The 747 is scheduled to leave California about six
days after landing. An overnight stop is scheduled for refueling, and the
ferry flight continues the next day.
Once back at Kennedy, removal and deintegration of Spacelab 2 proceeds in
nearly reverse order of assembly, but without the elaborate testing stages. In
most cases, disassembly is only a temporary state for Spacelab, as much of the
hardware is immediately taken to checkout areas for use on upcoming missions.
SPACELAB 2 INVESTIGATIONS
Spacelab 2 is a multidisciplinary mission with 13 investigations in seven
scientific disciplines: solar physics, atmospheric physics, plasma physics,
high energy astrophysics, infrared astronomy, technology research and life
sciences. Eleven of the investigations were developed by U.S. scientists and
two by scientists from the United Kingdom.
Spacelab 2 investigations were selected by a peer review process on the
basis of their intrinsic scientific merit and suitability for flight on the
Shuttle. Proposals for experiments came through several channels, including
NASA announcements of opportunity that solicited research ideas from the
worldwide scientific community.
The principal investigators for each experiment then formed an
Investigator Working Group (IWG). Chaired by the Spacelab 2 mission scientist,
Dr. Eugene Urban of Marshall Space Flight Center, this group participated in
In addition, they selected and helped train the four Spacelab 2 payload
specialists and then recommended two to perform their experiments in space.
A brief synopsis of each experiment follows, including the title of each
investigation and the name and affiliation of each principal investigator.
More detailed information on each experiment is contained in the publication
"Spacelab 2" (Pub. #20M385) available at all NASA news centers.
Three of the mission's experiments make solar observations in visible and
ultraviolet light. Above the atmosphere, the instruments see solar emissions
that are undetectable from the ground. Mounted together on the Instrument
Pointing System, these instruments provide data to make a composite image of
the sun's magnetic, structural and gaseous elements. During the mission, the
crew and ground investigators are able to select areas of solar activity as
Solar Magnetic and Velocity Field Measurement System/Solar Optical
Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) -- Dr. Alan M. Title, Lockheed Solar Observatory,
Palo Alto, Calif. An instrument complement of telescope and video cameras
observes the sun's magnetic field activity in different wavelengths and
polarizations in visible light.
Coronal Helium Abundance Spacelab Experiment (CHASE) -- Dr. Alan H.
Gabriel, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, United Kingdom, and Prof. J.
Leonard Culhane, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College, London,
United Kingdom. A telescope and spectrometer are used to detect hydrogen and
helium emission lines in order to assess solar hydrogen and helium abundance.
Solar Ultraviolet High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS) --
Dr. Guenter Brueckner, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. This
telescope and spectrograph system observes solar radiation from the sun's
outer layers and records the data on film and video.
The atmospheric physics experiment, closely related to the Spacelab 2
solar investigations, measures solar ultraviolet radiation in the upper
atmosphere. The instrument is scheduled to fly on several Spacelab missions
so that long-term variations in solar ultraviolet radiation can be identified.
Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) -- Dr. Guenter
Brueckner, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. An instrument
complement of spectrometers and detectors is tuned to a narrow range of
ultraviolet radiation and operates automatically every time the IPS is turned
toward the sun. Self-check calibration systems monitor the instruments and
ensure accurate measurements. This instrument made a checkout flight on the
third Shuttle mission.
The three Spacelab 2 plasma physics experiments investigate processes in
the ionosphere, the upper atmospheric region in which the Shuttle-Spacelab
travels. The ionosphere is affected by the electrified gas or plasma that
streams continuously from the sun. This mission's investigations study the
plasma environment with a free-flying satellite filled with sensors, by
artificially stimulating the plasma with electrons and with ground
observatories that can monitor the spacecraft's effect on the atmosphere.
University of Iowa, Iowa City. The instrument package, flown previously on
the third Shuttle mission, is extended and released by the Remote Manipulator
System (RMS) to make measurements after the orbiter has maneuvered to selected
attitudes. On the third flight day after about seven hours of operation as
a free-flyer, the PDP is recaptured by the manipulator arm and returned to the
vicinity of the payload bay. Before landing, it is locked back in place on the
aft pallet, unless an anomalous situation forces the PDP to be left behind in
Vehicle Charging and Potential Experiment (VCAP) -- Dr. Peter M. Banks,
Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. An electron generator emits a stream of
electrons, and the effects of the emissions on the plasma environment are
recorded by three plasma probes. Some VCAP experiments work with the PDP as
the satellite is moved through the generated electron beam. A special
television camera films the electron beam. This experiment operated during the
third Shuttle mission.
Plasma Depletion Experiments for Ionospheric and Radio Astronomical
Studies -- Dr. Paul A. Bernhardt, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos,
N.M., and Dr. Michael Mendillo, Boston University, Cambridge, Mass. The
effects of Shuttle thruster firings on the ionosphere are measured from five
radio observatories on the ground. The firings trigger chemical reactions that
create ionospheric "holes"; the observatories will study the changed plasma
state and transmission qualities of these altered upper atmospheric regions.
High Energy Astrophysics
High energy radiation, in the forms of X-ray and gamma-ray radiation and
charged particles called cosmic rays, cannot be observed from Earth. Above the
atmosphere, Spacelab 2 carries two large, sensitive high-energy radiation
Elemental Composition and Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Between 50
GeV/Nucleon and Several TeV/Nucleon -- Drs. Peter Meyer and Dietrich Muller,
University of Chicago. The cosmic ray detector, on a special support
structure at the end of the pallet train, is exposed to space throughout the
mission. Particles entering the detector are counted and identified
automatically, and the data are transmitted to the ground.
Hard X-Ray Imaging of Clusters of Galaxies and Other Extended X-Ray
Sources/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) -- Dr. A. Peter Willmore, University of
Birmingham, England. Two telescopes, observing at different resolutions,
detect distant and intense regions of X-ray emission to create X-ray images of
remote clusters of galaxies and some other interesting X-ray sources. A
microprocessor system controls target selection and pointing.
Infrared radiation, emitted by almost every celestial object, is best
observed outside the atmosphere, where Earth's background radiation is
eliminated. A Spacelab 2 telescope complements observations made recently by
the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS).
A Small Helium-Cooled Infrared Telescope (IRT) -- Giovanni G. Fazio,
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. The telescope measures
infrared radiation from a variety of sources. It can be controlled from the
ground or from Spacelab computers.
Spacelab 2, with its delicate observational instruments, provides a chance
to test advanced cooling systems. Extremely low temperatures allow telescopes
to detect celestial radiation without the interference of background emissions
from the instruments themselves.
In addition to an experiment dedicated to studying the characteristics of
superfluid helium, the Spacelab 2 infrared telescope uses superfluid helium as
Properties of Superfluid Helium in Zero-Gravity -- Dr. Peter V. Mason, Jet
Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. On Spacelab 2, superfluid helium
(helium cooled almost to absolute zero) is tested for its efficiency as a
An insulated container, or dewar, attached to the third pallet contains 2
fluid physics experiments that operate while the Shuttle is in a gravity
gradient (tail down) attitude. Sensors inside the dewar monitor the superfluid
helium throughout the entire mission.
The two Spacelab 2 life science investigations examine human and plant
biological processes in the space environment. One investigation studies
biochemical agents in human blood during space flight. The other is a
variation of a plant growth experiment previously flown on the third Shuttle
Vitamin D Metabolites and Bone Demineralization -- Dr. Heinrich K.
Schnoes, University of Wisconsin, Madison. This investigation studies the link
between bone mineral loss during space flight and the activity of vitamin D in
the human body. Blood samples are taken from crew members during flight,
stored until landing and then compared to samples taken from the crew before
Gravity-Influenced Lignification in Higher Plants/Plant Growth Unit (PGU)
-- Dr. Joe R. Cowles, University of Houston. Mung beans and pine seedlings,
planted in the Plant Growth Unit before flight, are flown to monitor the
production of lignin, a structural rigidity tissue found in plants. The crew
checks temperatures daily, and takes gas samples and photographs twice during
Protein Crystal Growth Experiment
The experiment, Protein Crystal Growth in a Microgravity Environment, was
sent into orbit during Shuttle Mission 51-D. During this current flight, it
again uses the stability of low gravity to produce more nearly perfect crystals
in space. Scientists have predicted that these crystals can be grown many
times larger in space. When grown on Earth, these crystals are so small that
scientists cannot analyze the molecular structure of the crystals. On this
test flight, the experiment operates automatically with limited crew
Two crystal growth units are stored inside a middeck locker. Dr. Charles
E. Bugg of the University of Alabama in Birmingham is the principal
investigator for the experiment; he is assisted by co-investigators at the
University of Alabama in Huntsville and the Marshall Space Flight Center.
Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment
The American Radio Relay League (ARRL) and Radio Amateur Satellite Corp.
(AMSAT) will begin a Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) this mission with
"ham" radio and TV operators on Earth. The radio and TV experiment is
sponsored by NASA.
Two of NASA's onboard astronaut amateur radio operators, Anthony England,
mission specialist, and John-David Bartoe, payload specialist, will converse
from Challenger with hams through a handheld radio. Gordon Fullerton,
spacecraft commander, is a former amateur radio operator and also may take the
Local ham clubs nationwide are inviting youth groups -- including students
participating in the Young Astronaut Program -- to hear, see and communicate
with the Challenger ham station. Ham radio communications also are expected
with amateurs in England, Israel, Australia and Japan.
One part of the SAREX experiment is to involve youth interested in science
and technology in the Space Shuttle Program. Rather than spend the limited
SAREX time talking randomly to amateurs on the ground, astronauts will talk to
clubs with dedicated frequencies for 1 or 2 minutes.
Astronaut England hopes the transmissions will encourage young people to
demonstrate that there is a lot of fun in science and technology and also give
them a little bit of first hand experience with the Shuttle operation.
First operation of a ham radio from space was by astronaut Owen Garriott
through a portable 2-m transceiver from Columbia on STS-9.
For the first time, amateur television will be part of a space flight when
slow-scan TV is sent in black and white, followed by compatible color from
Challenger. A 15 word-per-minute Morse code identification with England's call
sign will be sent by an automatic device.
The radio and TV hardware, stored in the orbiter crew compartment,
comprises a slow scan television converter and a 2-m band handheld transceiver
flown on STS-9. The TV and transceiver's modes permit conversion of Shuttle
video to slow-scan TV and transmission on the 2-m amateur band through a
window-mounted antenna. Another mode allows transmission of TV from a handheld
camera (part of SAREX).
Shuttle-to-Earth transmissions are in the 2-m amateur band and use
frequency modulation (FM). Orbit numbers and ground tracks for SAREX
operations will be announced before flight by ARRL.
Slow-scan TV signals transmitted from ham stations on Earth may be
received by the astronauts on Challenger using the window mounted antenna and
the 2-m transceiver. The signals are stored in the scan converter and
displayed on a 2-inch color monitor.
Mission 51-F air-to-ground communications will be retransmitted by
employee amateur radio clubs at Greenbelt, Md.; Pasadena, Calif.; Mountain
View, Calif.; Huntsville, Ala.; Great Britain; Houston and on several
frequencies which can be monitored with typical amateur and short wave
Club locations and retransmit frequencies are:
Goddard Space Flight Center 3.860 MHz SSB
Greenbelt, Md. 7.185 SSB
Jet Propulsion Laboratory 224.040 FM
Pasadena, Calif. 145.460 FM
Ames Research Center 145.580 FM
Mountain View, Calif. 7.270 SSB
Marshall Space Flight Center 145.430 FM
Radio Society of Great Britain 3.650 SSB
Johnson Space Center 146.640 FM
Note: The American Radio Relay League Public Information Officer is Paul
Courson, who may be reached at the Johnson Space Center (phone (713) 280-8341
Plant Carry-On Container
A Plant Carry-On Container (PCOC), located in a middeck locker, aboard
flight 51-F will provide the means for a unique study of gravitropism by a
group of select students who are considering the space sciences as a career
option. The students also will focus on the development of a diet and delivery
system that can provide purified diets in a noncontaminating process.
Pre- and post-flight efforts of the group will delve into the physiology
of the vestibular system and how the visual and vestibular systems interact to
allow perception of body orientation and motion in a spatial environment.
Twenty-four students presently are involved in the program that, in
support of agency policy, has strong minority involvement. Over a 6-week
period, college level students participate in the "life cycle" of an
experiment. The program emphasizes hands-on experience.
The pilot program, in which college level credit is given, is supported by
Kennedy Space Center, the University of Central Florida and Florida A and M
University. The program manager is Marvin Christiansen, NASA Headquarters.
Payload specialists are NASA's newest breed of workers in space. The
first payload specialists made their debut during the Spacelab 1 mission in
1983. Since then, payload specialists have flown on other Shuttle missions.
Payload specialists are career scientists and engineers who are identified
and selected by their peers to fly into space and conduct experiments. After
the mission, they return to their previous position at the institution
sponsoring their research. Usually, they are intimately connected with the
mission and are the principal investigator or co-investigator for one or more
of the mission's experiments.
The Spacelab 2 Investigator Working Group, consisting of the principal
investigators for all the experiments, nominated and selected four payload
specialist candidates. The principal investigators helped train the candidates
in their laboratories and later named the flight and alternate payload
The working group selected Dr. Loren Acton, a solar physicist at the Space
Sciences Laboratory of the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, and Dr.
John-David Bartoe, an astrophysicist at the Naval Research Laboratory, to fly
as payload specialists for the Spacelab 2 mission. They also named two other
payload specialists, Dr. Dianne Prinz, a research physicist at the Naval
Research Laboratory, and Dr. George Simon, a solar physicist at the Air Force
Geophysics Laboratory, as alternate payload specialists. Prinz and Simon will
serve as flight backups and as members of the mission support team responsible
for controlling and directing experiment operations from the Payload Operations
Control Center at the Johnson Space Center in Houston.
All four Spacelab 2 payload specialist candidates underwent two basic
types of training: mission dependent and mission independent.
MISSION DEPENDENT TRAINING is associated with Spacelab 2 experiments and
payload operations. Since the payload specialists' main duty is to operate
experiments, this is the longest part of the training program.
Much of this training was provided by the individual Spacelab 2 principal
investigators in their own laboratories. Marshall Space Flight Center provided
training in integrated payload operations at the Payload Crew Training Complex
inside a high-fidelity mockup of the aft flight deck configured for Spacelab
2. The crew also became familiar with actual flight hardware during
integration tests at the Kennedy Space Center.
MISSION INDEPENDENT TRAINING is associated with learning the fundamental
skills necessary to live and work safely aboard the Shuttle-Spacelab. Johnson
Space Center provided familiarization with living conditions as well as
medical, emergency and survival training. Kennedy Space Center provides launch
and landing site training.
Payload Operations Control Center
The Payload Operations Control Center (POCC), located in Building 30 at
Johnson Space Center, is the command post for the management of Spacelab 2
scientific payload activities during the mission. The POCC is similar to the
Mission Control Center (MCC), which has overall responsibility for the flight
and operation of the orbiter. POCC and MCC personnel coordinate their efforts
to ensure a successful mission.
Members of the Marshall mission management team and principal
investigators with their research teams work in the POCC in either three 8-hour
shifts or two 12-hour shifts. Using POCC equipment, they monitor, control and
direct experiment operations aboard Spacelab.
The POCC, covering an area of more than 4,000 square feet, is situated
adjacent to the flight control room on the second floor of the MCC. It is
composed of a payload control room, a mission planning room, six user rooms and
a customer support room. The payload control room or "front room" houses part
of the mission management team who track the overall science mission. Other
members of the mission management team support operations from the "back room."
Individual experiment teams have work areas in the user rooms. Each user
room contains three work stations, each having a computer terminal, keyboard,
CRT display, floppy disk unit and hard copy unit for the users' own payload
monitoring and control. In addition, science teams may set up their own
Command and data links between the POCC and Spacelab enable scientists to
follow the progress of their experiments, assess and respond to realtime
information and be actively involved in the investigative process.
Spacelab 2 scientists can communicate with the crew via voice and text
links and they can send automated commands directly to the onboard computer to
control their experiments.
The capabilities of the POCC include some data processing. Multiplexed
Spacelab 2 data are received at up to 48 megabits per second and converted into
separate channels. These channels are routed to recorders, to the
experimenters' ground support equipment, or to experiment consoles for display.
The following is a general description of the cadre personnel working in
the Spacelab POCC front room at Johnson Space Center.
POD (Payload Operations Director) -- is the senior member of the mission
manager's cadre team in the POCC; oversees Spacelab 2 mission operations and
directs the payload operations team and science crew.
MSCI (Mission Scientist) -- represents scientists with experiments on the
flight and interfaces with the mission manager and the POD with respect to
mission science operations and accomplishments.
CIC (Crew Interface Coordinator) -- manages POCC use of air-to-ground
voice loop and serves as a focal point for communications with payload crew;
enables and coordinates principal investigator communication with payload crew.
APS (Alternate Payload Specialist) -- assists the payload operations team
and payload crew in devising solutions to problems, troubleshooting and
changing crew procedures when necessary; advises the mission scientist of
possible impacts or problems and assists the CIC in direct voice contact with
the payload crew.
OC (Operations Controller) -- coordinates the activities of the payload
operations team to efficiently accomplish POCC functions required to support
the real-time execution of the approved mission timeline; assesses proposed
crew timeline alteration and coordinates the implementation of approved actions
with the POCC cadre positions.
MUM (Mass Memory Unit Manager) -- initiates experiment command uplinks to
the Spacelab after receiving data set changes from the POCC operations team.
PAYCOM (Payload Command Controller) -- configures the POCC for ground
command operation and controls the flow of experiment commands from the POCC as
required; troubleshoots any problems in the rejection of those commands.
Advises OC on command systems status.
PAP (Payload Activity Planner) -- directs the mission replanning activity
by receiving proposed changes to the mission timeline and coordinating them
with the POCC operations team; assesses proposed changes to the current
timeline and advises the POD of potential impacts to the timeline.
DMC (Data Management Coordinator) -- is responsible for maintaining and
coordinating the flow of payload data to and within the POCC for the cadre and
principal investigators; assesses proposed real-time changes to the experiment
timeline and payload data requirements which affect the payload downlink data.
TVOPS (TV Operations Controller) -- serves as the focus within the POCC
for Spacelab payload inflight television and photographic operations,
specifically with regard to scene development of flight crew activities.
PAO (Public Affairs Officer) -- provides Spacelab 2 mission commentary and
serves as the main source for Spacelab payload information.
SPACELAB 2 SHIFT OPERATIONS
12-hour shifts Blue Red
Payload Crew MS3 (England) MS1 (Henize)
PS2 (Bartoe) PS1 (Acton)
Orbiter Crew MS2 (Musgrave) PLT (Bridges)
CDR (Fullerton) will work during both shifts as needed
Payload Operations Control Center Cadre Positions
Johnson Space Center (JSC)
Mission Manager: Roy C. Lester
Assistant MM, Hubert R. Gangl Jr. supports the mission from the Huntsville
Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall.
Mission Scientist Dr. Eugene W. Urban Stuart Clifton
MSCI Charles Sisk Robert Wilson
POD Tom Rankin Axel Roth
APS George Simon Dianne Prinz
CIC (3 shifts) Joe Hale - Barbara Cobb - Bill Bock
OC Ray Eady Fred Applegate
DMC Jack Bullman Darrell Bailey
PAP Scott Perrine Gordon Wood
MUM Morayma Luis Mike Purvey
TV OPS Rip Koken John Harrison
Mission Control Center
(3 teams working 9-hour shifts)
Orbit Team 1 Flight Director G. A. Pennington
Orbit Team 2 Flight Director John Cox (Lead flight director)
Orbit Team 3 Flight Director Lee Briscoe
Ascent/Entry Flight Director T. Cleon Lacefield
SPACELAB 2 MANAGEMENT
Program Manager Louis J. Demas
Program Scientist Daniel Spicer
Spacelab Program Manager John W. Thomas
Marshall Space Flight Center
Mission Manager Roy C. Lester
Marshall Space Flight Center
Mission Scientist Eugene W. Urban
Marshall Space Flight Center
Lead Payload Operations Axel Roth
Director Marshall Space Flight Center
COMMUNICATIONS AND DATA HANDLING
For any successful Shuttle mission, the ground control team must be able
to track the spacecraft, communicate with the astronauts and command the
orbiter. These capabilities allow them to oversee the condition of the
spacecraft and its crew.
The Spacelab 2 mission is more complex than many other Shuttle missions
because vast amounts of data must be collected from the various experiments.
To accommodate the need for additional information, a unique communications and
data handling network has been established for Shuttle/Spacelab missions.
NASA handles 51-F/Spacelab 2 tracking and communications through the
Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and the Ground Space Tracking
and Data Network (GSTDN) of 11 ground radar stations that can communicate with
a spacecraft when it is in view. TDRSS and GSTDN link the Shuttle/Spacelab to
Johnson Space Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.
During the Spacelab 2 mission, TDRSS will be used to relay commands and
data to and from the experiments aboard Spacelab 2. The GSTDN will supplement
TDRSS and provide routine, realtime tracking and communications with the
Shuttle orbiter and its crew.
The NASA Communications Network (NASCOM), managed by Goddard, provides the
voice and data communications links connecting the network. During the flight,
Spacelab 2 data flow from the Shuttle orbiter to TDRS-1, which transmits to the
TDRSS ground station at White Sands, N.M. The data could also flow from the
orbiter to one of the GSTDN stations. In either case, the data are transmitted
to a commercial satellite which sends the data to the Spacelab data processing
facilities at the Goddard and Johnson centers.
The data sent to the Johnson Center are usually in the form of computer
readouts or video. Investigator teams working around-the-clock at work
stations in the Johnson control center can analyze these data realtime. Data
received during the early phase of the mission may help them plan observations
or experiments for the rest of the flight.
The Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) at Goddard was developed
specifically to handle the large volume of science data transmitted from
Spacelab to the ground. The Goddard data facility separates and records data
by experiment. After the mission, this facility distributes data to each
investigator. The data may be in varied forms, such as video tapes, computer
tapes or audio tapes. The facility also records data from other Shuttle
payloads that use the onboard data system.
Huntsville Operations Support Center
The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC), located at Marshall Space
Flight Center, monitors the Shuttle during prelaunch and launch at Kennedy
Space Center and supports Johnson Space Center by monitoring Spacelab 2 systems
and payload operations during the mission.
During the 51-F premission testing, countdown and launch, realtime data
are transmitted from the Shuttle to consoles in the HOSC, which are manned by
Marshall and contractor engineers. They evaluate and help solve any problems
that occur with Marshall-developed Space Shuttle propulsion system elements,
including the main engines, external tank and solid rocket boosters. They also
monitor the overall main propulsion system and range safety system.
During the 7-day mission, support center personnel monitor the Spacelab
systems' temperatures, pressures, electrical measurements and onboard computer
system. HOSC scientists and engineers view onboard crew activities via
closed-circuit television, monitor air-to-ground communications and monitor
experiment and systems computers and IPS performance. If a problem is
detected, the appropriate individuals in the Spacelab action center are
notified. The information is then relayed to the Payload Operations Control
Center and Flight Control Room within the Mission Control Center at Johnson.
FLIGHT CREW DATA
C. GORDON FULLERTON, 48, Colonel, USAF, is mission commander. Born in
Rochester, N.Y., he became a NASA astronaut in 1969. He received bachelor of
science and master of science degrees in mechanical engineering from the
California Institute of Technology.
Fullerton entered active duty with the Air Force in 1958. He underwent
combat crew training and then attended the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot
He served as support crew member for the Apollo 14 and 17 missions. He
also served as pilot on the critical orbiter flight tests in 1977. He logged
192 hours as pilot in space on STS-3, the third orbital test flight of the
ROY D. BRIDGES JR., 41, Colonel, USAF, is pilot. A native of Gainesville,
Ga., he graduated from the U.S. Air Force Academy with a bachelor of science
degree. He received a master's degree in astronautics from Purdue University.
Bridges trained as a fighter pilot and flew combat missions in Vietnam.
In 1970, he attended the USAF Test Pilot School and was a research engineering
test pilot until 1974.
Bridges was selected as a NASA astronaut candidate in 1980. He served as
primary entry communicator for STS-5 and STS-6, as well as primary ascent
communicator for STS-7. He has logged more than 3,375 hours of flying time;
Spacelab 2 is his first space flight.
ANTHONY W. ENGLAND, 43, Ph.D., a mission specialist, was selected as a
scientist astronaut in 1967. He served as a support crew member for the Apollo
13 and 16 flights.
England received bachelor and master of science degrees in geology and
physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1970, he received a
doctorate in planetary sciences from MIT. He has continued his geophysics
research all around the United States and in Antarctica.
After serving as a research geophysicist for the U.S. Geological Survey
for 7 years, England returned to Johnson Space Center as a senior mission
specialist in the operations mission development group of the astronaut
office. He has logged more than 2,000 hours in flying time.
KARL G. HENIZE, 58, Ph.D., is a mission specialist. Selected as a
scientist astronaut in 1967, he has conducted extensive astronomical
observations and research using both Earth-based observatories and orbiting
Henize received a bachelor of arts degree in mathematics and a master of
arts degree in astronomy from the University of Virginia, and a doctorate in
astronomy from the University of Michigan. He was a member of the astronaut
support crew for the Apollo 15 and the Skylab 2, 3 and 4 missions.
He has logged 1,900 hours flying time in jet aircraft.
F. STORY MUSGRAVE, 49, M.D., from Lexington, Ky., is a mission specialist
with certain flight responsibilities. He was selected as an astronaut in
1967. Since that time he has worked with NASA on projects such as Skylab
design and development and on the development of Shuttle EVA equipment.
Musgrave received a bachelor of science degree in mathematics and
statistics from Syracuse University, a master of business administration degree
in computer programming from the University of California at Los Angeles, a
bachelor of arts degree in chemistry from Marietta College, a doctorate in
medicine from Columbia University, and a master of science in physiology and
biophysics from the University of Kentucky.
Musgrave has logged more than 13,200 hours flying time in both civilian
and military aircraft. He also served as mission specialist on STS-6.
LOREN W. ACTON, 48, Ph.D., is a payload specialist and solar physics
expert. Born in Lewiston, Mont., Acton is the senior staff scientist with the
Space Sciences Laboratory, Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, Palo Alto,
Acton received a bachelor of science degree in physics from Montana State
University and a doctorate in solar physics from the University of Colorado at
Boulder. He has been involved in solar physics and high-energy astrophysics
research on many NASA projects. He also is a co-principal investigator for an
instrument aboard the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft.
Acton is a co-investigator for the Spacelab 2 Solar Magnetic Field and
Velocity Measurement (SOUP) experiment.
JOHN-DAVID F. BARTOE, 41, Ph.D., is a payload specialist and astrophysics
expert. He received a bachelor of science degree in physics from Lehigh
University, and a master of science degree and a doctorate in physics from
Bartoe is currently an astrophysicist at the Naval Research Laboratory in
Washington, D.C., where he has performed solar research for almost 20 years.
He has carried out solar ultraviolet studies with sounding rockets, satellites,
and instruments flown on Apollo and Skylab missions.
Bartoe is a co-investigator on the Solar Ultraviolet High Resolution
Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS) experiment and the Solar Ultraviolet Spectral
Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) experiment.
EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY
With the ratification of its convention, Oct. 30, 1980, the European Space
Agency (ESA), which defacto came into being in May 1975, acquired its legal
existence. The agency groups in a single body the complete range of European
space activities pr viously conduced by ESRO (European Space Research
Organization) and ELDO (European Launcher Development Organization) in their
respective fields of satellite development and launcher construction.
The 11 member states of ESA are: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany,
Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United
Kingdom. Three other are closely associated with the agency: Austria and
Norway have associate member status and Canada has an agreement for close
The agency's purpose, as described in its convention, is to provide for
and to promote, for exclusively peaceful purposes, cooperation among European
states in space research and technology, and their space applications, with a
view to their being used for scientific, technical, administrative and
financial matters, each state having one vote (but none in the case of an
optional program in which it is not participating).
The chief executive and legal representative of the agency is the Director
General who is appointed by the Council for a defined period.
ESA Headquarters is located in Paris and has a staff of some 280 people.
Its main technical center, ESTEC, the European Space Research and Technology
Center, with a staff of about 780 people, is located at Noordwijk, the
Netherlands. Its Space Operations Center (ESOC) is located at Darmstadt,
Federal Republic of Germany. Another center, ESRIN, in Frascati, near Rome,
houses the Information Retrieval Service and the Earthnet Program Office. The
agency also has a liaison office in Washington, D.C.
ESA INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION
Contractors to ESA (for Spacelab development)
VFW-Fokker ERNO (now MBB-ERNO) Project management, system
Federal Republic of Germany engineering, product assur-
ance, integration, test operations,
thermal control, miscellaneous Spacelab
components and services
AEG Telefunken Industries Electrical power distri-
Federal Republic of Germany bution subsystem
Aeritalia Module structure, environ-
Italy mental and thermal control subsystem
Bell Telephone Manufacturing Co. Electrical systems ground
Belgium support subsystem (system level)
Dornier Systems Environmental control/life
Federal Republic of Germany subsystem
Fokker Scientific Airlock, common
The Netherlands payload support equipment
British Aerospace Pallet structure
Kampsax Computer software
Matra Command and data management
Sabca Igloo structure, utility
Belgium bridge, common payload support equipment
Sener Mechanical ground support
AEG-ULM Intercom system and
Federal Repblic of Germany electrical harness
Aeritalia Airlock manufacturing
Italy and handling equipment
Brunswick Nitrogen tank assembly
Brunswick/Celesco Fire and smoke detector,
United States fire suppression system
Carleton Hybrid system, atmospheric
Unites States control assembly
Casa Mechanical ground support
Spain equipment items
CII Computers and software
Compagnie Industrielle Radio Simulators, orbiter
Electronique interface adaptor
Dornier Systems Subsystem computer operating
Federal Republic of Germany system coding
Draeger Ground support equipment for
Federal Republic of Germany environmental control life
Elec. Zentr. Pressure decay sensor
ERNO Condensate storage assembly
Federal Republic of Germany
ETCA Measuring and stimuli
Hamilton Standard Fan assembly, water sepa-
United States rator, CO2 control assembly,
humidity and temperature control assembly,
Instituto Nacional de Technica Mechanical ground support
(INTA) equipment, lighting
Martin Marietta Demultiplexer
Federal Republic of Germany
Microtechnica Thermal control system
Italy components, pump package
Nord Micro Elektronix Avionics assembly
Federal Republic of Germany
Odetics Digital recorder, mass
Unites States memory
OKG (later replaced by VMW) Mechanical ground support
Austria equipment, viewport adaptor assembly,
manifolds, nitrogen shut-off valve control
Rovsing Computer software
Standard Electric Lorenz (SEL) Remote acquisition units,
Federal Republic of Germany caution and warning system
Terma Subsystem power distribution
Thompson CSF Data display system
Vereinigte Flugtechnische Mechanical ground support
Werke (VFW) equipment
Federal Republic of Germany
McDonnell Douglas and TRW
Instrument Pointing System
Dornier Systems Prime Contractor
Federal Republic of Germany
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