For this particular guide I'm going to be focusing on bolt action and lever action rifles.
Lever action repeating rifles
Two very early examples of lever action repeating rifles are the Spencer repeating rifle and the Henry repeating rifle.
the basic function of the lever is a block that moves up and down the receiver simultaneously ejecting a round upwards while lifting a round from the tubular magazine to the chamber
The repeating rifle was invented mainly for calvary units during the civil war due to how difficult it was to reload firearms while mounted and they needed away to reliably fire multiple shots while on the move from horse back. Due to just how effective they were lead to massive popularity making them an obvious choice in the expansion westward. These weapons have tubular magazines that can hold anywhere from 5 to 16 rounds making them high capacity for such an old and relatively compact design. Due to the feeding nature lever action rifles are extremely reliable and fast to fire.
Modern repeaters while not quite as popular today are still used regularly especially in places with large game. A great example of just how good a modern repeater can be is the Marlin Guide Gun chambered in .45-70 govt it is a reliable high power accurate and fast shooting rifle using a very old design.
Bolt Action rifles
The first bolt action rifle was made in 1824 it didn't take long for this technology to take over the military market
Bolt actions generally consist of a rotating or sometimes straight pull bolt configuration that houses the firing mechanism. The action of rotating the bolt cocks the weapon and ejects the casing when pulled back then pushing the bolt forward pushes a round from the magazine to chamber making the action less complicated then the lever action counterparts.
The bolt action is still extremely popular in civilian, military, and law enforcement uses. One of the most iconic and popular rifles is the Remington model 700. The 700 comes in an insane amount of configurations and calibers showing the versatility of the bolt action platform.
A fairly standard 700
An extremely heavily modified 700 showing the range of customisation that is available for these rifles
That's about it for this extremely short guide I got pretty lazy couldn't really think of much to put in it but here is a small selection of these rifles that I think make great additions to any shooters collection.
Marlin Guide: http://www.marlinfirearms.com/firearms/bigbore/1895.asp
Marlin Model 336BL: http://www.marlinfirearms.com/Firear...fire/336BL.asp
Marlin Model X7Y (.308 version): http://www.marlinfirearms.com/Firear...Action/x7y.asp
Remington 700 Varmint: http://www.remington.com/products/fi...armint-sf.aspx
Remington 700 SPS tactical: http://www.remington.com/products/fi...-tactical.aspx
Ruger Gunsite Scout: http://www.ruger.com/products/gunsit...le/models.html
Ruger M77 Hawkeye standard: http://www.ruger.com/products/m77Haw...rd/models.html
Mosin Nagant for people wanting a cheap big bolt rifle: http://www.jgsales.com/mosin-nagant-...r.-p-1041.html